2018-2019留学新动态!加拿大留学利好政策不断推出

编辑分析,加拿大留学2018年推出改革新政策,同学们快来关注,国际学生以后要进行成绩认证啦!

国际留学生要进行成绩认证

从2018年起,多伦多大学本科申请要求国际学生进行成绩认证。此前,加拿大院校中,只有渥太华大学研究生课程需要成绩认证。学生按照申请学校要求,将成绩单、毕业证书、学位证书等相关材料,递交到教育部学位中心进行认证,再由认证中心将认证后材料提交给学校。由于认证需要约两个月,建议学生最好在高二下学期就开始规划留学申请。

2018-2019留学新动态!加拿大留学利好政策不断推出图1

麦吉尔大学推本科双录取

2018年加拿大排名前三大学均开设类型不同本科入学语言捷径,降低学生语言要求。麦吉尔大学2018年新推出本科双录取,英属哥伦比亚大学将雅思只有5.5分、但成绩优秀学生安排到Vantage
College学习桥梁课程。

硕士申请GMAT要求提高

从加拿大商科管理类硕士申请来看,GMAT要求逐年提高,从550分升至600-650分才有竞争优势。名校要求更高,如往年多伦多大学专业会计与管理硕士680-700分便可录取,但今年已经上升到724分。

多伦多大学增设特殊申请要求

多伦多大学罗曼特商学院增设特殊申请要求,要求2018年9月入学申请人提交一段2-4分钟演讲视频。在视频演讲开始前,学生要先根据学校给出题目,提交一篇不多于1500个英文字母小文章。在视频演讲时,学生从校方随机提供三个题目中,选择自己喜好,进行即兴演讲。

以上就是小站为大家整理的加拿大留学资料,希望能够帮助到大家。小站会一直陪在大家身边,留学的宝宝们加油!

家乡不仅在梦里 还在雅思口语里

雅思口语中,有一个话题总是会被考到,就是hometown。家乡,这个话题看似简单,但却难以用三言两语说清,中文尚且如此,何况是英语?这个话题暗含杀机,总是让很多小烤鸭头疼不已。既不能对家乡长篇大论,又不能高冷又简单的回答考官,那么该怎么回答呢?口语高分学员Tina向我们分享了自己的看法。

家乡不仅在梦里 还在雅思口语里图1

当考官“深情”的望着你,说”Now,let’s talk about hometown.”时,接下去的一句多半是”Where do you come from?”。听到这里,很多考生就一下子high了起来,立马背出准备好的答案。当然,对话准备是对的,但我想说,很多学生在答案里准备了很多数字,比如人口、面积等。试想一下,自己在和朋友介绍家乡的时候,会报出这一串无关紧要的数字吗?数字只会往往显得背诵的痕迹太重,影响得分。

那应该怎么说才好呢?我认为最好是从自己身边出发最好,如家乡的人文风情、气候、好吃的好玩的等,这些即便没有准备过,也是可以现场来几句。然后考官接下来的问题可能是:

What tourist attractions are there in your hometown? Would a foreign visitor enjoy them?

如果你的家乡有旅游景点当然是好回答的,但还是切记不要背那些景点说明,而是想想,你曾经去过吗?什么时候第一次去?经常去吗?你有推荐别人去过吗?什么时候这些地方人多啊?等等诸如此类很生活的问题。再说到外国游客,这根据你看到的情况真实说明即可。如果之前没有很多外国游客,你会想推荐他们去吗?

Did you learn much about the history of your hometown in school?

关于家乡的历史,我想中国大部分城市都可以说出很多,诸如远古时期的文明,古代史、近代史等。如果没有,那么也可以说说在学校,或书里学到了关于家乡的历史等。

Whatdo you like about your hometown?

有没有觉得这个问题跟上面一些问题有重复呢?所以在回答的时候,同学可以去挑一些之前讲过的内容来展开一下,比如吃的,玩的,人好,交通等等。

最后总结:同学们在碰到这种老掉牙的题目时不要紧张也不要轻视,切记从自己的视角出发,说出自己的经历和感受。

GMAT考场应试2条调整状态实用经验分享 超常发挥冲刺高分要这么做

GMAT考试充满变数。哪怕考生平时复习准备做得再充分,上了考场也难免因为各种问题和原因影响发挥,因此,除了备考心得外,考生还需要对GMAT考场的实战经验有所了解,下面小编就和大家分享两条能够帮助考生取得高分的GMAT考场实战经验。

GMAT考场应试2条调整状态实用经验分享 超常发挥冲刺高分要这么做图1

解题最后阶段更应集中注意力

从上面内容可以看出,最后阶段的松懈往往是犯低级错误的根本原因,那么避免的原则也就非常简单了,那就是在解题最后阶段集中注意力。不要急着做完,也不要放松警惕。在进行最后一步计算或者填写答案前,做个深呼吸,然后集中精神,放缓速度,仔仔细细的做完题目。

人们更容易在疲劳时犯错,考试时也是如此,如果考试前身心疲惫又没有好好休息,那么考试中犯低级错误的概率会大幅提升。大家在平时备考时就应该注意劳逸结合,复习时间长了不妨站起来舒展一下身体,喝点水走动一下。临考前更是需要调整好身心状态,避免疲劳上阵。

时刻关注自身状态

考生在考试时,为避免犯低级错误,应时刻关注自身状态。有人会说,考试的时候,既要做题,又要注意考试时间,哪还有心思注意自己状态?然而这么做却是必须的。因为状态决定成绩。如果考生因为精神不集中或者疲劳等原因,无法发挥出自身实力,那么考试结果自然很难令人满意。如果你在考试中出现诸如思维涣散、反复看题却不理解意思等现象,那么就应该及时注意调整状态了,因为这种情况下最容易出现低级错误。

如果在考试中发现自身状态不佳,及时解决的最好方法,就是暂时闭上眼睛,然后心中默数1到20,同时尽可能的放空头脑,摒除杂念并做个深呼吸。这样做将有助于缓解疲劳状态集中精神,同时也避免了因为长时间盯视电脑屏幕造成的视觉疲劳。

以上这两条GMAT考场实战经验,小编希望各位考生都能够有所了解,这些经验虽然跟考试内容无关,却能在很大程度上左右你的临场发挥,影响到最终成绩,大家如果能多加注意,取得GMAT高分想必也会更有把握。

【新SAT】从OG中解读新SAT语法之标点符号

自2016年3月起,新SAT考试将正式推出。在新SAT考试中,语法部分作为“写作与语言测试”,归入阅读。改革后的语法在形式和内容上都发生了很多变化,注重词汇在具体语境中的含义,要求考生掌握例证,另外还增加了图表题。

【新SAT】从OG中解读新SAT语法之标点符号图1

在考试描述中,我们看到这样一段话:The questions associated with the passages place students in the role of someone revising and editing the work of an unspecified writer. Students are, by turns, asked to improve the development, organization, and use of language in the passages and to ensure that the passages conform to conventions of standard written English grammar, usage, and punctuation. 相比现行SAT重点考查语法和用法,新SAT语法考试将增加对标点符号的考查。首先我们来看一下考纲中的具体描述:

Conventions of Punctuation These questions focus on editing text to ensure conformity to the conventions of standard written English punctuation.
End-of-sentence punctuation The student will recognize and correct inappropriate uses of ending punctuation in cases in which the context makes the intent clear.
Within-sentence punctuation The student will correctly use and recognize and correct inappropriate uses of colons, semicolons, and dashes to indicate sharp breaks in thought within sentences.
Possessive nouns and pronouns The student will recognize and correct inappropriate uses of possessive nouns and pronouns as well as differentiate between possessive and plural forms.
Items in a series The student will correctly use and recognize and correct inappropriate uses of punctuation (commas and sometimes semicolons) to separate items in a series.
Nonrestrictive and parenthetical elements The student will correctly use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive and parenthetical sentence elements as well as recognize and correct cases in which restrictive or essential sentence elements are inappropriately set off with punctuation.
Unnecessary punctuation The student will recognize and correct cases in which unnecessary punctuation appears in a sentence.

现行SAT中重点考查的标点符号主要是分号,而新SAT对标点符号用法的考查将更加全面。考纲中涉及到的标点符号主要有句号、冒号、分号、破折号、撇号、逗号等,下面我们通过样题来了解一下具体的考点

【新SAT】从OG中解读新SAT语法之标点符号图2

以样题中的Q5为例,The transportation [Q5] planner’s job, might involve conducting a traffic count to determine the daily number of vehicles traveling on the road to the new factory.

Question 5.

A. NO CHANGE (planner’s job,)

B. planner’s job

C. planners job,

D. planners job

这道题目体现了考纲中的两个点,一个是区分所有格与名词的复数形式,planner和job之间是所属关系,使用’s表示所有格;另外一个是不使用标点的情况,即句子主语和谓语动词之间不应该用逗号隔开,因此本题选B。

改革后的SAT紧密贴合美国国家核心课程标准(Common Core State Standards),例如样题中的Q14,The name Kingman was selected for its two [Q14] parts, “king” and “man”; Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition.”

Question 14.

A. NO CHANGE (parts, “king” and “man”;)

B. parts: “king” and “man,”

C. parts “king” and “man”;

D. parts; “king” and “man”

我们在CCSS中可以找到关于这个知识点的明确要求,即9-10年级学生语言标准当中的第2条的b. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.本题考查的就是冒号用于列举和解释说明。因此答案选B。

标点符号的用法广泛而灵活,要想掌握好这一考点,建议考生学习标准书面英文的规范,在自己进行写作的同时关注标点符号的用法。特别要注意的一点就是汉语和英语中标点符号用法的区别。比如,在汉语句子内部,主语和谓语之间、谓语和宾语之间,如需停顿,可以使用逗号隔开;而在英语当中,逗号的使用以及不使用都有具体的规范,不可随意使用,这一点希望大家能够仔细区别。

【语法真题100练】GMAT考生必看SC高分秘籍(二十八练)

GMAT语法题,又称句子改错题(sentence correction),是整个GMAT考试中对考生英语语法能力考查要求最高的题型,也往往是中国学生最为头疼的一类题目。没有扎实的语法基础和一定的逻辑分析能力,想要做好语法题难度极高。怎样做好GMAT语法题?下面小编就通过一些经典真题的实例解析,为大家全面讲解GMAT语法题的解题思路和方法技巧。

【语法真题100练】GMAT考生必看SC高分秘籍(二十八练)图1

实例题目:

In virtually all types of tissue in every animal species, dioxin induces the
production of enzymes that are the organism’s trying to metabolize, or render
harmless, the chemical that is irritating it
.

(A) trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating
it

(B) trying that it metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

(C) attempt to try to metabolize, or render harmless, such a chemical
irritant

(D) attempt to try and metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical
irritating it

(E) attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

【语法真题100练】GMAT考生必看SC高分秘籍(二十八练)图2

选项分析:

(A)trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating
it

【错误】
简洁明了:在GMAT语法题中表达同一个意思时,简洁性从高到低依次为动词、形容词和副词、一般名词、动名词(简称VANing原则:V——verb,A——adj.或adv.,N——noun,ing——动名词)。本选项中的“trying”(动名词)简洁性逊于(E)的“atempt”(一般名词)。

(B)trying that it metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

【错误】 固定搭配:不存在“try that+S(主语)+V(谓语)”表示尝试做某事的用法。

(C)attempt to try to metabolize, or render harmless, such a chemical
irritant

【错误】 简洁明了:“attempt to try”中“attempt”和“try”语义重复。

(D)attempt to try and metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritating
it

【错误】 简洁明了:见(C)。

(E)attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

【正确】 “attempt to do sth.”是正确搭配,且“attempt”比“trying”和“attempt to
try”更加简洁明了。

【大意】 实际上在每个动物物种的所有形式的组织中,二噁英刺激一种酶的产生,这是有机体中和,或无害化,化学刺激物的尝试。

解题思路:

没有“trying that”表示“试着做某事”的搭配,立即排除(B)。

“attempt to try”语义重复,排除(C)和(D)。“trying”简洁性逊于“attempt”。因此选择(E)。

【写作技巧】详解托福独立写作的3大特性

托福独立写作的文章,每篇文章都是由段落所构成的,所以对于一篇好的文章来说,每个段落都会有其不同的作用。那么,对于每个段落来说,应该如何去正确安排其安排呢?其实,每个段落都是应该有着一个主题思想,有若干推展句、论据。下面我们就为大家详细分析一下该如何进行托福写作内容的拓展吧。

【写作技巧】详解托福独立写作的3大特性图1

1.统一性

一个段落内的各个句子必须从属于一个中心,任何游离于中心思想之外的句子都是不可取的。请看下例:

Joe and I decided to take the long trip we‘d always wanted across the
country. We were like young kids buying our camper and stocking it with all the
necessities of life. Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie. We started out in early
spring from Minneapolis and headed west across the northern part of the country.
We both enjoyed those people we met at the trailer park. Joe received a watch at
his retirement dinner. To our surprise, we found that we liked the warm southern
regions very much, and so we decided to stay here in New Mexico.

本段的主题句是段首句,controlling idea(中心思想)是take the long trip across the
country。文中出现两个irrelevant sentences,一个是Bella bakes the best rhubarb
pie,这一段是讲的是Joe and I ,中间出现一个Bella是不合适的。还有,Joe received a watch at his retirement
dinner这一句更是与主题句不相关。考生在四级统考的作文卷上常常因为造出irrelevant
sentences(不相关语句)而丢分,值得引起注意。再看一个例子:

My name is Roseanna, and I like to keep physically fit. I used to weigh two
hundred pounds, but I joined the YMCA for an exercise class and diet program. In
one year I lost eighty pounds. I feel much better and never want to have that
much weight on my five-feet frame again. I bought two new suitcases last week.
Everyday I practice jogging three miles, swimming fifteen laps, lifting
twenty-pound weights and playing tennis for one hour. My mother was a premature
baby.

本段的controlling idea 是like to deep physically fit,但段中有两个irrelevant
sentences,一个是I bought two new suitcases last week,另一个是My mother was a premature
baby。

从上面两个例子可以看出,native speakers同样会造出来irrelevant
sentences。卷面上如果这种句子多了,造成偏题或离题,那问题就更严重了。

2.完整性

正象我们前面说得那样,一个段落的主题思想靠推展句来实现,如果只有主题句而没有推展句来进一步交待和充实,就不能构成一个完整的段落。同样,虽然有推展句,但主题思想没有得到相对圆满的交待,给读者一种意犹未尽的感觉。这样的段落也不能完成其交际功能。例如:

Physical work can be a useful form of therapy for a mind in turmoil. Work
concentrates your thoughts on a concrete task. Besides, it is more useful to
workyou produce something rather than more anxiety or depression.

本段的主题句是段首句。本段的两个推展句均不能回答主题句中提出的问题。什么是 “a mind in turmoil”(心境不平静)Physical
work又如何能改变这种情况?为什么它能起therapy的作用?读者得不到明确的答案。

由于四级统考的作文部分只要求写一篇100~120个词的三段式短文,每一段只有大约40个词左右,因此,要达到完整就必须尽可能地简明。例如:

It is not always true that a good picture is worth a thousand words. Often
writing is much clearer than a picture. It is sometimes difficult to figure out
what a picture means, but a careful writer can almost always explain it.

段首句所表达的主题思想是一种看法,必须有具体事例加以验证。上述两个推展句只是在文字上对主题作些解释,整个段落内容空洞,简而不明。如果用一两个具体的例子的话,就可以把主题解释清楚了。比如下段:

It is not always true that a picture is worth a thousand words. Sometimes,
pictures are pretty useless things. If you can‘t swim and fall in the river and
start gulping water, will you be better off to hold up a picture of yourself
drowning, or start screaming “Help”?

【写作技巧】详解托福独立写作的3大特性图2

3.连贯性(coherence)

连贯性包括意连和形连两个方面,前者指的是内在的逻辑性,后者指的是使用转换词语。当然这两者常常是不可分割的。只有形连而没有意连,句子之间就没有内在的有机的联系;反之,只有意连而没有形连,有时行文就不够流畅。

1) 意连

段落中句子的排列应遵循一定的次序,不能想到什么就写什么。如果在下笔之前没有构思,边写边想,写写停停,那就写不出一气呵成的好文章来。下面介绍几种常见的排列方式。

A.按时间先后排列(chronological arrangement)

We had a number of close calls that day. When we rose, it was obviously late
and we had to hurry so as not to miss breakfast; we knew the dining room staff
was strict about closing at nine o‘clock. Then, when we had been driving in the
desert for nearly two hours – it must have been close to noonthe heat nearly hid
us in; the radiator boiled over and we had to use most of our drinking water to
cool it down. By the time we reached the mountain, it was four o‘clock and we
were exhausted. Here, judgement ran out of us and we started the tough climb to
the summit, not realizing that darkness came suddenly in the desert. Sure
enough, by six we were struggling and Andrew very nearly went down a steep
cliff, dragging Mohammed and me along with him. By nine, when the wind howled
across the flat ledge of the summit, we knew as we shivered together for warmth
that it had not been our lucky day.

本段从 “rose”(起床)写起,然后是吃早餐(“not to miss breakfast”, “closing at nine
o‘clock”),然后是 “close to noon”,一直写到这一天结束(“By nine”)。

B. 按位置远近排列(spatial arrangement)。例如:

From a distance, it looked like a skinny tube, but as we got closer, we could
see it flesh out before our eyes. It was tubular, all right, but fatter than we
could see from far away. Furthermore, we were also astonished to notice that the
building was really in two parts: a pagoda sitting on top of a tubular one-story
structure. Standing ten feet away, we could marvel at how much of the pagoda was
made up of glass windows. Almost everything under the wonderful Chinese roof was
made of glass, unlike the tube that it was sitting on, which only had four.
Inside, the tube was gloomy, because of the lack of light. Then a steep, narrow
staircase took us up inside the pagoda and the light changed dramatically. All
those windows let in a flood of sunshine and we could see out for miles across
the flat land.

本段的写法是由远及近,从远处(“from a distance”)写起,然后”get closer”,再到(“ten feet away”),最后是
“inside the pagoda”……当然,按位置远近来写不等于都是由远及近。根据需要,也可以由近及远,由表及里等等。

以上就是托福写作中段落内容的安排,要注意的是句子的排列顺序必须合乎逻辑,从一个句子到另一个句子的过渡必须流畅,要有连贯性,不能左一句右一句企图以难词多取胜,或者用些复杂句型,一篇好文章的基础,就是文章段落安排的让人觉得舒服合理。

2018年7月21日雅思写作真题回忆及范文:

2018年7月21日雅思写作真题回忆及范文:图1

  
雅思小作文类型:流程图   
题目 The diagram shows the how recycled paper is made 
雅思大作文类型:社会类   
题目:Some businesses find that new employees who just finish their education lack basic interpersonal ability such as work with others as a part of team.What do you think the causes of this problem?And how to solve this?

范文来自雅思哥:

Despite the high level of knowledge, employers today have found that their new employees lack basic interpersonal skills needed in an office environment. This essay will analyze the main reason leading to the problem and offer some potential solutions to it.

People with interpersonal skills are the people who can vary how they act and what they contribute. They notice the strengths and weaknesses of their group, and they adapt. However, schools and colleges or universities have failed to equip students with such applied skills. Instead, students are encouraged to focus on their academic subjects exclusively, because they are only evaluated by their academic performance which is essential to receiving an academic qualification. Unfortunately, many of them have turned into information recipients who acquire the knowledge in a passive way without truly developing abilities and skills required in today s job market. For high schools, educators should think more about how students are learning, rather than just what they are learning. Teaching should reflect the richness of real-life interactions, and to give students experience in the kinds of settings that are going to be useful to them when they leave school. Assignments and curricula should integrate opportunities to work collaboralively. Group projects, for example, are valuable learning opportunities.

In the higher education sphere, professors and administrators should encourage students to seek out real-world experiences. Colleges and universities could ask students to work cotlaboratively in the classroom and pursue internships and volunteer opportunities outside of it. Students should also look for critical growth opportunities within their extracurncular activities, rather than just viewing them as resume-fillers.

To conclude, jobs requiring high levels of social interaction are growing. In order to help graduates better prepare for their future career, changes should be considered in the education system.

以上就是小站雅思为大家整理的2018年7月21日场的雅思写作大小作文的全部内容,更多雅思考试相关资讯,请继续关注小站雅思。

2018年2月10日雅思写作真题大作文Task2原创高分范文


全年范文汇:2018全年雅思写作大作文多版本合集 配小作文范文传送


2018年2月10日雅思写作真题大作文Task2原创高分范文图1

雅思写作大作文解析

本题为抽象类话题。谈论比起看电视,人们读书更有利于培养想象力和提升语言技能。该题与2013年1月5日的考题完全一致。总体来说,本题看似十分简单,似乎是关于传统阅读和现代科技的论述,实则陷井重重。考试极易论证阅读的好坏处和看电视的好坏处,而忽略了与培养想象力和语言能力的联系。

文章结构 paragraph 1 :结合时代背景引入话题且表明自己的观点。

paragraph 2: 论述阅读对于提升想象力和培养语言能力的原因。

paragraph 3: 论述阅读对于提升想象力和培养语言能力的原因。

Paragraph 4: 再次重申自己的观点。

雅思写作大作文范文:

Modern technology has revolutionized the way people spend their leisure
time, from reading engrossedly to watching TV casually. In terms of this
transformation, there has been a growing body of opinion in favour of the view
that compared with watching TV, reading books is a preferred way to better
cultivate imagination and grasp language skills.To my mind, both serve a
positive function with proper time allocated in TV viewing and well-chosen
materials read.

With regards to reading, it does have much a role to play in eliciting
imaginative response and enhancing language skills as it leaves room for
imagination and in-depth study. Unlike vividly visual display in the TV
programs, there are only words playing as triggers in written text, meaning that
people must re-imagine sights, sounds, tastes, feelings, etc of the narrative,
thus, definitely, improving people’s creativity. Apart from that, by doing
massive reading, people get used to seeing proper grammar, formal languages and
new correction,therefore, being exposed to a larger brain feed of vocabulary and
grammar simply trains people to use language better. Perhaps the clearest
example of this would be that heavy readers tend to speak more articulately than
average people who are keen on watching TV.

Conversely, there is a commonly heard view that television is of great
importance to stimulate imaginative play and advance language skills. As to
building imagination, this highly visual medium is a boon given to people by
technology that is a good source to entertain them only when used judiciously.
Watching good channels like “discovery” on television increases people’s
imagination power along with general knowledge. On an educational side,
Television, it is argued, makes the boring exciting through its ability to
engage people with both sound and visual stimulation. People respond well to the
visual story-telling power of fast-paced television programmes and are better
able to retain the language learned through this experience. The use of
television programmes to teach children how to read and write is a good example
of this.

To conclude then, books and televisions are both very imaginative and
educational by helping people foster imagination and have a good command of
language skills.

字数 360 words

【SAT写作素材】人物经典事例:拉里·佩奇

分享给大家SAT写作中经典人物例子:关于拉里·佩奇的人物事例,希望能帮助大家丰富SAT写作素材。

【SAT写作素材】人物经典事例:拉里·佩奇图1

Early life and education

Larry Page was born in Lansing, Michigan. His father, Carl Page, earned a
Ph.D. in computer science in 1965 when the field was in its infancy, and is
considered a “pioneer in computer science and artificial intelligence.” Both he
and Page’s mother were computer science professors at Michigan State University.
Gloria Page, his mother, is Jewish but he was raised without religion.

Page attended the Okemos Montessori School (now called Montessori Radmoor) in
Okemos, Michigan from 1975 to 1979, and graduated from East Lansing High School
in 1991. He holds a Bachelor of Science in computer engineering from the
University of Michigan with honors and a Master of Science in computer science
from Stanford University. While at the University of Michigan, “Page created an
inkjet printer made of Lego bricks” (actually a line plotter), served as the
president of the Eta Kappa Nu in Fall 1994, and was a member of the 1993 “Maize
& Blue” University of Michigan Solar Car team.

During an interview, Page recalled his childhood, noting that his house “was
usually a mess, with computers and Popular Science magazines all over the
place”. His attraction to computers started when he was six years old when he
got to “play with the stuff lying around”. He became the “first kid in his
elementary school to turn in an assignment from a word processor.” His older
brother also taught him to take things apart, and before long he was taking
“everything in his house apart to see how it worked”. He said that “from a very
early age, I also realized I wanted to invent things. So I became really
interested in technology…and business . . . probably from when I was 12, I
knew I was going to start a company eventually”.

After enrolling for a Ph.D. program in computer science at Stanford
University, Larry Page was in search of a dissertation theme and considered
exploring the mathematical properties of the World Wide Web, understanding its
link structure as a huge graph. His supervisor Terry Winograd encouraged him to
pursue this idea, which Page later recalled as “the best advice I ever got”.
Page then focused on the problem of finding out which web pages link to a given
page, considering the number and nature of such backlinks to be valuable
information about that page (with the role of citations in academic publishing
in mind). In his research project, nicknamed “BackRub”, he was soon joined by
Sergey Brin, a fellow Stanford Ph.D. student.

John Battelle, co-founder of Wired magazine, wrote of Page that he had
reasoned that the “entire Web was loosely based on the premise of citation –
after all, what is a link but a citation? If he could devise a method to count
and qualify each backlink on the Web, as Page puts it ‘the Web would become a
more valuable place’.” Battelle further described how Page and Brin began
working together on the project:

“At the time Page conceived of BackRub, the Web comprised an estimated 10
million documents, with an untold number of links between them. The computing
resources required to crawl such a beast were well beyond the usual bounds of a
student project. Unaware of exactly what he was getting into, Page began
building out his crawler.

“The idea’s complexity and scale lured Brin to the job. A polymath who had
jumped from project to project without settling on a thesis topic, he found the
premise behind BackRub fascinating. “I talked to lots of research groups” around
the school, Brin recalls, “and this was the most exciting project, both because
it tackled the Web, which represents human knowledge, and because I liked
Larry”.

Brin and Page originally met in March 1995, during a spring orientation of
new computer Ph.D. candidates. Page, who had already been in the program for two
years, was assigned to show some students, including Brin, around campus, and
they later became good friends.

To convert the backlink data gathered by BackRub’s web crawler into a measure
of importance for a given web page, Brin and Page developed the PageRank
algorithm, and realized that it could be used to build a search engine far
superior to existing ones. It relied on a new kind of technology that analyzed
the relevance of the back links that connected one Web page to another. In
August 1996, the initial version of Google was made available, still on the
Stanford University Web site.

Business

Page at the European Parliament in June 17, 2009

In 1998, Brin and Page founded Google, Inc. Page ran Google as co-president
along with Brin until 2001 when they hired Eric Schmidt as Chairman and CEO of
Google. In January 2011 Google announced that Page would replace Schmidt as CEO
in April the same year. Both Page and Brin earn an annual compensation of one
dollar. On April 4, 2011, Page officially became the chief executive of Google,
while Schmidt stepped down to become executive chairman.

Personal life

Page married Lucinda Southworth at Richard Branson’s Caribbean island, Necker
Island in 2007. Southworth is a research scientist and sister of actress and
model Carrie Southworth. They have one child.

Other interests

Page is an active investor in alternative energy companies, such as Tesla
Motors, which developed the Tesla Roadster, a 244-mile (393 km) range battery
electric vehicle. He continues to be committed to renewable energy technology,
and with the help of Google.org, Google’s philanthropic arm, promotes the
adoption of plug-in hybrid electric cars and other alternative energy
investments.

Brin and Page are the executive producers of the 2007 film Broken Arrows.

Awards and recognition

PC Magazine has praised Google as among the Top 100 Web Sites and Search
Engines (1998) and awarded Google the Technical Excellence Award, for Innovation
in Web Application Development in 1999. In 2000, Google earned a Webby Award, a
People’s Voice Award for technical achievement, and in 2001, was awarded
Outstanding Search Service, Best Image Search Engine, Best Design, Most
Webmaster Friendly Search Engine, and Best Search Feature at the Search Engine
Watch Awards.”

In 2002, Page, along with Sergey Brin, was named to the MIT Technology Review
TR100, as one of the top 100 innovators in the world under the age of 35.

In 2003, both Brin and Page received an honorary MBA from IE Business School
“for embodying the entrepreneurial spirit and lending momentum to the creation
of new businesses….” And in 2004, they received the Marconi Foundation Prize,
the “Highest Award in Engineering,” and were elected Fellows of the Marconi
Foundation at Columbia University. “In announcing their selection, John Jay
Iselin, the Foundation’s president, congratulated the two men for their
invention that has fundamentally changed the way information is retrieved
today.” They joined a “select cadre of 32 of the world’s most influential
communications technology pioneers….” He was elected to the National Academy
of Engineering in 2004. In 2005, Brin and Page were elected Fellows of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 2002 the World Economic Forum named
Page a Global Leader for Tomorrow and in 2004 the X PRIZE chose Page as a
trustee for their board.

In 2004, Page and Brin were named “Persons of the Week” by ABC World News
Tonight. Page received an honorary doctorate from the University of Michigan in
2009 during graduation commencement ceremonies.

In 2011, he was ranked 24th on the Forbes list of billionaires and as the
11th richest person in the United States.

2018年SAT阅读出题范围预测,寒假该如何做积累?(下)

Winter Reading 小说书单

美国高中在开学的时候,很多学校都会开研讨会讨论书中的内容,有的学校甚至会让学生交上一篇命题论文(可能是专门深掘某个角色的内心世界,可能是针对时事来分析作品,也可能是探究一个情节背后的隐喻),都可以帮助学生在寒假自学SAT,进行小说积累。

下面是13所美国顶尖高中推荐的36本精选,大家可以在寒假读起来。

2018年SAT阅读出题范围预测,寒假该如何做积累?(下)图1

1、The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night Time

(深夜小狗神秘事件)

深夜,邻家小狗威灵顿死在草坪上。我心疼地抱着它,却被主人误以为是凶手。我决定侦破这起谋杀案,并把探案的过程写成一本书。

克里斯托弗具有惊人的记忆力与超群的数学天赋。他知道世界上所有国家及其首都的名称,知道7057以内的所有质数,也能轻松地默算出复杂的数学题。不过,他习惯生活在自己的小小世界,不爱跟人说话,也不懂得去理解他人的想法,独自去过最远的地方是街角的商店。

一个旁人眼中的怪孩子,内心孤独又敏感、骄傲又脆弱,在探寻真相的过程中,他展现出非凡的才智与勇气……

2.The Joy Luck Club

(喜福会)

《喜福会》里写到四对不同的母女,站在各自的角度分别叙述各自的生活。母亲都是在战乱时期,从中国逃离去美国的。怎么会是逃离。她们当中,有人要离开战乱的中国,有的是成功地逃出一段荒唐的婚姻,亦有在等到自己丈夫的死讯后,嫁给美国人。

总之,在她们终于踏上去往美国的路上时,也是她们怀揣着对美好生活的无限憧憬,通往一条未知的路上。喜福会仅仅是在桂林时,几个女子给麻将聚会取的名字,当然,这喜和福里面,同样也寄托着女子们美好的愿望。所以,喜福会仅仅是一场麻将里的东南西北四个角色,谁输谁赢,结束都是喜乐一场,吃元宵,穿漂亮衣服,在一起聊天回忆,那些她们年轻时的岁月。

故事里的四个女儿都是在美国出生和长大的女子,虽然她们的外表和母亲们非常相像,可她们却似乎从一开始就在同自己的母亲们抗争。女儿们用支离破碎的汉语同母亲们交谈,当母亲开始用同样结巴的英语同她们解释和沟通时,换来的只是她们的耻笑,甚至是商店里,大街上,明目张胆地挑衅。

母亲偶尔脱口而出的言辞,被当成是无端的、带有恶意的揣测,在女儿眼里永远都是无休止的挑剔,母亲们永远都在指向她们心灵的痛楚,那些女儿们试图要掩饰,却在西方环境里成长,学不会掩饰的伤疤。母亲们希望女儿们融入美国的社会,却又不想让她们失去中国的性子,那从未来女婿脸上一个一个小小雀斑、从房间的布置,都能看出未来的婚姻是不是幸福,生活会不会完满。

这些细微的事件,从女儿看来,就是莫名其妙,不可理喻。直到最后成年了,经历许多优柔寡断和人生的患得患失后,女儿们可能懂得了当初母亲竭力要保护自己、不想要自己受到伤害的良苦用心。

3.A River Runs Through It

(一江流过水悠悠)

《一江流过水悠悠》是芝加哥大学文学教授麦克林恩七十多岁时写就的自传性小说,也是他的处女作与成名作。美国西部小城密苏拉,山林环抱,大河流淌,河中鳟鱼肥美。长老会牧师的儿子,诺曼和保罗,在浓郁的宗教氛围中长大,并习得了一门被他们奉若宗教的蝇钓技艺,弟弟保罗更是此中高手。

兄弟情意甚笃,工作后分居两地,仍不时相约垂钓。但性情刚硬又嗜赌的保罗偏离了生活的安全轨迹,终致盛年早逝世,也令挚爱却无法理解和帮助他的亲人哀痛不已。

多年后,退休的诺曼再次来到古老的大泥腿河畔,回忆起兄弟二人和老父一起垂钓的情景,往事悠悠,哀思逐水流。诺曼似乎在岩石下喁喁细语的水声中听到了逝者的话语。

4.The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy

(银河系搭车客指南)

地球被毁灭了,因为要在它所在的地方修建一条超空间快速通道。主人公阿瑟·邓特活下来了,因为他有一位名叫福特·大老爷的朋友。这位朋友表面上是个找不着工作的演员,其实是个外星人,是名著《银河系漫游指南》派赴地球的研究员。两人开始了一场穿越银河的冒险,能够帮助他们的只有《银河系漫游指南》一书中所包括的无限智慧。

旅途中,他们遇上了一批非常有趣的同伴,这些人物结成一个小团队,他们将揭开一个骇人听闻的大秘密……

5.One Writer’s Beginnings

美国女作家尤多拉·韦尔蒂的自传,她长于描写美国南方生活。这本自传讲述了她的家庭和她的周遭环境是如何打磨她的性格和她的写作的。

6.One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest

(飞越疯人院)

精神病院里,大护士以严厉的手段、冰冷的器械和冷酷的心肠统治病人们,试图把他们改造为柔顺的、规矩的、毫无个性的机器。病人们饱受大护士和黑男孩护工的凌虐,直到不受约束的麦克墨菲进入了疯人院。

在病人中,印第安人布罗姆登最懂得体制的力量,即便麦克墨菲仿佛一步步走向胜利,把狂欢节的氛围传播到整个病房,但布罗姆登知道更严酷的压制在等待着他们。

7.Mrs. Dalloway

(达洛卫夫人)

《达洛卫夫人》描写了一位议员夫人一天的活动过程。全书以主人公为核心,以她的生日晚宴为枢纽,突出地塑造了两个截然不同的典型:代表上流社会及习惯势力的“大医师”布雷德肖和平民出生的史密斯。

同时对当时英国社会的上层阶级中形形式式的人物做了入木三分的刻画,让读者领略到典型意识流小说的各种特色,并以其“一天写尽一个女人的一生”的艺术功力,淋漓尽致地展现了这部作品的独特性,同时还告诉人们,意识流小说并非仅仅是艺术技巧的创新,它们也可以具有深刻的思想性和社会意义。

8.The Old Man and the Sea

(老人与海)

背景是在二十世纪中叶的古巴。主人公是一位名叫圣地亚哥的老渔夫,配角是一个叫马诺林的小孩。风烛残年的老渔夫一连八十四天都没有钓到一条鱼,但他仍不肯认输,而是充满着奋斗的精神,终于在第八十五天钓到一条身长十八尺,体重一千五百磅的大马林鱼。

大鱼拖着船往海里走,老人依然死拉着不放,即使没有水,没有食物,没有武器,没有助手,左手抽筋,他也丝毫不灰心。经过两天两夜之后,他终于杀死大鱼,把它拴在船边。但许多鲨鱼立刻前来抢夺他的战利品。他一一地杀死它们,到最后只剩下一支折断的舵柄作为武器。

结果,大鱼仍难逃被吃光的命运,最终,老人筋疲力尽地拖回一副鱼骨头。他回到家躺在床上,只好从梦中去寻回那往日美好的岁月,以忘却残酷的现实。

9.Beloved (宠儿)

肯塔基州农场“甜蜜之家”拥有6个黑奴,农场主加纳夫妇爱护且信任他们。黑尔牺牲了5年的安息日,终于赎出其母贝比·萨克斯,塞斯被购进以代替她。塞斯与黑尔相爱,与他有了两个孩子。然而好景不长,加纳先生去世,加纳太太得了重病。加纳先生的妹夫“学校老师”进了“甜蜜之家”,开了虐打黑奴的先例……

10.I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

(我知道笼中鸟为何歌唱)

小镇成长起来的人们离开了故土、苍老了容颜,甚至连谋生手段、进取之心和生存目标都不再与从前相同,但不管他们戴着怎样的面具,那后面依旧是一张孩子的脸。玛雅·安吉洛在本书中回忆了二十世纪三四十年代在南方小镇斯坦普斯及加利福尼亚州的成长经历。

从三岁到十七岁,玛雅不仅要与那如影相随的错位和不安全感做斗争,还要面对种族主义、性骚扰和强奸等一系列令人心碎的挑战,这种遭遇影响了她的一生。最终,她意识到,爱自己、善待他人、变得坚强、阅读伟大的作品是打开心灵桎梏的钥匙,会给人自由。

11.The Killer Angels

(杀手天使)

小说TheKiller
Angels是美国小说家麦克尔·沙莱的作品。小说以美国南北内战中的葛底斯堡战役为背景描写了当时双方各色人物的故事和经历。此书曾经荣获过普利策奖,也成为了美国最受欢迎的历史题材小说之一。其在90年代初更被改编拍摄成了电影《葛底斯堡》。

12.Like Water For Chocolate

(巧克力情人)

青年佩德罗闯进了一个原本平静的没落家族,他狂热地爱上了家族中最聪明能干的小女儿蒂塔,但这个家族有一条规矩,最小的女儿要侍候母亲直至老人归天,此前不得出嫁。万般无奈之下,佩德罗娶了蒂塔的大姐为妻,为的就是有机会接近蒂塔。

蒂塔伤心透顶,但母命难违,她唯有将满腔的热情融化在食物中,用无声的语言传递自己的喜怒哀乐。

于是我们看到,在姐姐的婚礼上,夹杂泪水的糕饼让所有人怀念起失落的爱,欢庆的场面顿时悲鸣一片;玫瑰花瓣鹌鹑引得食客心里翻江倒海,放纵的欲念油然而生;辣烧火鸡则让每个人都亢奋莫名,不曾有过的欢笑和喜悦溢于言表;还有那治愈沉默症的神奇的牛尾汤、引得众人情欲大爆发的核桃酱辣椒、因为加入大量的爱而美味无比的巧克力饮料。

随着季节的变化与烹饪内容的更迭,一道道菜肴呈现蒂塔爱欲痴嗔的情绪起伏,由此铺展开的情节使小说成为绚烂的传奇。

13.The Jungle (屠场)

该书描写了一个立陶宛移民家庭–尤吉斯一家的悲惨遭遇。他们满怀憧憬从家乡来到美国寻梦,在芝加哥屠场区找到工作,以为美好生活将从此开始。不料灾难接踵而至,先是尤吉斯工伤失业,接着妻子奥娜被工头奸污,尤吉斯怒打工头而入狱,随后妻子难产死亡,幼小的儿子淹死。亲朋好友中男的流落街头,女的被逼为娼,美国梦演变为可怕的梦魇。

更悲哀的是,这个万恶的资本主义机器不仅害得他家破人亡,更毒害了他的心灵。他自暴自弃,干起合伙抢劫的勾当,甚至还在屠场罢工时当上了工贼。所幸的是,在风起云涌的社会主义运动中,尤吉斯终于找到了人生的奋斗目标,他的阶级觉悟被唤醒。

小说结尾时,他深信社会主义是唯一的出路,而这也正是辛克莱的信仰。

14.Old School (老学派)

本书由一个美国高中12年级生的视角讲述,他在一个顶尖寄宿学校就读(可能是The Hill School)。本书封面也是这个学校的食堂。

15.Native Son (土生子)

小说主人公别格·托马斯过着饥寒交迫的生活,他在白人眼中是“坏黑鬼”,而他对白人则怀着又恨又怕的心理,后来在无意中杀死了一个白人姑娘而被捕。当他被判死刑时,共产党员白人律师麦克斯出庭为其辩护,道出了别格犯罪的根源——社会的不公,但仍未扭转别格走向刑场的宿命。

理查德·赖特是美国最享盛誉的黑人作家之一,本书也被誉为美国黑人文学的里程碑。西方评论界一般都认为从《土生子》出版后,黑人文学才在美国文学中取得地位,可以说,该书使黑人文学达到了一个高峰。本书自始自终充满着紧迫感、郁闷感,既反映了社会底层的被压迫民族的内心活动,也烘托出这种生活环境所养成的主人公的残忍性格。

16.My Name is Asher Lev

(我的名字是阿舍列夫)

书里描述的主人公阿希尔·李维,一个在纽约市的犹太男孩。他是一个孤独的人,有艺术的倾向。他的艺术倾向,和自己的家人、他的社区和周围其他人有所冲突,他童年时,社区价值观认为其主要的信念和宗教表达艺术无关,充其量只是一种浪费时间,还可能是一个侮辱。

其中这与他的父亲,带给他非常强的冲突,一个人一生致力于服务他们的领袖,环游世界带来教育和实践的其他犹太人的教派,谁是由自然无法理解或欣赏艺术。还描述了阿希尔的成熟,为一艺术家和一个犹太人集一身的故事。

17.A Long Way Gone (长路漫漫)

本书作者是12岁时被西非塞拉利昂叛军抓去充当职业军人经历的童兵。作品叙述在塞拉利昂1991年至2002年间的内战中,主人公比亚从一个普通小男孩变成了一个无家可归的的孤儿。为躲避叛军的抓捕,他只得逃到非洲的沙漠和丛林中流浪,但他还是被叛军抓住,充当了一名职业军人。

从此他从一个天真无邪的儿童变成了叛军的一部杀人机器,过着血腥的生活。后来在联合国儿童基金会的救助下,他摆脱了魔爪的控制,在美国完成了高中学业。他心中又充满了光明和希望,决心为保卫世界和平和全世界儿童的幸福贡献自己的力量。

18.The Things They Carried

(士兵的重负)

在第一部反映越南战争的小说《追寻卡奇亚托》获得美国国家图书奖后,作为一个参战者和亲历者,奥布莱恩再次把每一个字都变成一颗子弹,把朝向越南人那边的炮筒调转头,对准那些当年发起这场战争的尼克松们,好让这帮病态的政客也承受一下战争给士兵带来的心灵上的困顿,以及感情上的创伤。

奥布莱恩摒弃掉传统中的类似白描的写实手法,延续了美国后现代主义小说的诸多写作技巧,有意识地让笔下的文字呈现出一种微醺的醉意——开枪如开车,杀人如杀鸡,貌似荒谬、怪诞,总有别有用心的真实。士兵们中弹倒下的身姿,也被他处理成蝴蝶折翅般陨落的幻象。

战争对人的摧残也不再像以前众多作品那样显得直白和血腥,《士兵的重负》实验性地将血肉横飞的场景轻淡下来,反而在情绪的推陈下埋伏了更深层的杀机。整部作品由若干个独立成文的小章节组成,看上去非常类似电影分镜头的剧本。

19.This Side of Paradise

(人间天堂)

主人公艾默里·布莱恩是典型的“迷惘的一代”,外表俊美,家境富裕,却给母亲培养成一个娇生惯养的孩子。在少年时代,这种贵族式的目空一切曾令他陷入痛苦,唯有在与达西大人的交往中,他才获得些许慰藉。

普林斯顿的大学岁月,加剧了他对中产阶级庸俗礼仪的反叛。成名的渴望使他心劳神疲,他徒劳地在爱情与生活中挣扎。曾与他志趣相投的朋友们逐渐离他而去,只有带领他初涉文坛的汤姆还与他保持着友谊。战争将学生时代欢快迷人的气氛转变为彻底的绝望。退伍后的他更加迷茫、颓废。

三十岁时,他变得愤世嫉俗,开始厌恶这个社会制度,盼望来一场社会革命,把自己推到社会的顶峰。

小说以作者自己的求学和海外生活为原型,描述了主人公从预备学校到大学,再经历第一次世界大战的经历,精彩再现了“迷惘一代”的精神面貌,作者以栩栩如生的笔触,捕捉到这个疯狂纵乐的时代背后的哀伤情绪。

20.In the Heart of the Sea

(海洋深处)

故事讲述了埃塞克斯捕鲸船所经历的真实的海难。1819年,这艘船在南太平洋沉没,事故的原因是该船被一头足有梅尔维尔在《大白鲸》中描写的那么大的鲸鱼所碰撞。幸存的海员挤在三只小船上,在大海上漂流了90天,这期间他们经历了病痛、饥饿,最终竟演化到相互残杀、同类相食…

21.A Lesson Before Dying

(垂死的教训)

本书背景为40年代的路易西安那州,21岁的年轻黑人杰佛森在不知情的情况下,被卷入一桩杂货店抢案,不料,最后行抢的友人和店老板皆命丧当场,无人能证明他的清白,因而被白人陪审团判处死刑。

能言善道的黑人教师葛兰特回到家乡,想改善年轻一代同胞的生活,当他得知杰佛森的事情时,加上杰佛森亲人的请托,他决定每天探访这位年轻人,为他上死前的最后一课:如何带著尊严与自傲而死。在相处过程中,两人建立了坚定的友情,从对方身上互相学得宝贵的一课。

22.How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents

(加西亚家的女孩不再带口音)

在风光旖旎的故乡岛国,加西家四姐妹是令人艳羡的天之骄女,总是有私人司机为她们打开车门,总是有园丁对她们脱帽行礼,总是有十几个女仆陪伴左右。

如今,流落异乡的加西亚一家几乎失去了熟悉的一切:家园、财产、地位、语言……父母自顾尚且不暇,四个稚嫩懵懂的心灵只能相互依偎取暖。渴望融入主流社会的她们熨平了头发,抽烟,喝酒,与美国男人约会,甚至忘掉了母语,在成长的道路上陷入了迷途……

23.Great Expectations

(远大前程)

故事发生在十九世纪的英国,皮普从小成长于贫苦家庭之中,看着他长大的是个性暴躁的姐姐和杰夫乔。一次偶然中,皮普来到了一幢神秘的庄园之中,在那里住着的是他的雇主哈文森姆小姐和她的侄女艾斯黛拉。

随着时间的推移,皮普深深的爱上了性格冷艳高贵的艾斯黛拉,深知自己配不上她的皮普在内心里燃起了想要跻身于上流社会的念头。一笔突然到来的神秘财产让皮普得以实现了他长久以来的愿望,他来到了伦敦,开始了自己的“变身计划”,而此时的他并不知道,本以为是时来运转,但自己不过只是棋盘上的一颗棋子而已。

24.The Fault in Our Stars

(星运里的错/无比美妙的痛苦)

重病中的女孩海蓁,爱上了同病相怜的男孩奥古斯塔斯,死神的身影伴随着青春的曼妙,两个年轻人在让人羞赧的生理折磨和情感考验中互相依偎。海蓁想在生命的最后时刻,完成荷兰之旅,男孩忍着病痛,帮她完成了心愿,就告别了这个世界,在有限的日子里给了女孩永远的爱。

女孩读着男孩留下的信,凄然泪下……苦难中两颗纯洁心灵的抚慰,残酷中青春之花的绽放,作品将爱情与死亡写得如此平实而奇异,催人泪下,在洗涤人类情感的同时,让人体味生命和爱情的美妙与痛苦。

25.Unbroken (坚不可摧)

路易·任贝里尼是美国加利福尼亚的一个普通孩子,父亲是意大利移民。少年时期,任贝里尼偷盗成性,打架斗殴,坏事做尽。后来在警察局长的劝说下加入了田径队,1936年他代表美国田径队参加了德国主办的奥运会,当时还曾因偷了一面德国国旗差点儿被纳粹卫兵用枪打死。

当他一心备战1940年奥运会时,二战爆发了。任贝里尼参加了美国空军,而且成为一名非常优秀的飞行员。在一次执行任务时,他的飞机被击中并掉入太平洋。此后他开始了47天的海上历险和求生。他顽强地活了下来,却被日本兵发现并送入了战俘营。任贝里尼经历了重重生死考验,最终回到了美国…

26.The Odyssey (奥德赛)

《奥德赛》共12000多行,也分为24卷。诗人把俄底修斯的10年海上历险,用倒叙的手法放在他临到家前40多天的时间里来描述。这10年惊心动魄的经历,包含了许多远古的神话,反映出经幻想加工过的自然现象以及古希腊人同自然的斗争和胜利。第9卷中所写的俄底修斯用计制胜巨人族波吕斐摩斯的故事,突出地表现了他的机智和勇敢。

27.The Power of One

1930年的非洲,种族歧视仍然很严重。白人儿童P.K.在这里长大,作为一个英国孤儿,他备受歧视和欺侮,唯一的朋友是来自德国的作曲家多克。随着战争的爆发,多克被英国兵抓入监狱。

P.K.也随之入狱。在狱中他结识了黑人拳击手皮尔,后者不仅教会了他如何用拳头保护自己,也让他明白了种族歧视的根源。当目睹了皮尔为自己的理想付出了生命之后,P.K.立志此生将为消除种族歧视而战。

28.A Separate Peace

(一个人的和平/独自和解)

小说讲述第二次世界大战背景下一所学校里发生的故事。吉恩和菲尼是德文中学里一对非常要好的朋友。吉恩是学习尖子,一心想获得学业上的特别成就奖;菲尼则是天才的运动健儿,多次获得体育奖项,轻轻松松就能打破被保持多年的校游泳记录。

吉恩嫉妒羡慕菲尼潇洒率性的性格与行为方式,并认为菲尼也在嫉妒自己优秀的学习成绩,然而他仍小心维持着表面的友好。一天,菲尼告诉吉恩,他希望吉恩能够成功,吉恩这才意识到自己在胡乱猜疑,他更加憎恨菲尼身上他所没有的纯真。

无意识的冲动或是有意识的预谋造成了对菲尼无法弥补的伤害——两人一起在从树上向河里跳水时,吉恩有意晃动树枝,菲尼跌落河岸上,造成终生残疾。菲尼受伤后,也曾隐约怀疑事故的起因,但他竭力回避事情真相,维护着两人之间的友谊。

而吉恩始终在内心中煎熬。后来在意想不到的情况下,那次事故的原因终于浮出水面,菲尼再次受伤,最终死在手术台上。去世之前,菲尼真心原谅了他的朋友吉恩。毕业15年后,吉恩故地重游,体会战争的残酷和友谊的珍贵,聆听他的只有他自己。

29.The Color Purple

(紫色姐妹花)

故事发生于1909年美国南部。未受过教育的黑人女孩西莉被继父强奸后,又被迫嫁给了粗鲁,凶狠的黑人男子,西莉称其为“先生”。在惊恐和胆怯中她开始了奴仆一般的痛苦生活。幸而有亲姐妹南蒂与之相伴,泪水中才多了一些欢乐。

不久,这短暂的幸福也从西莉身边消失了。因为“先生”强奸南蒂不成,恼羞成怒地将南蒂赶了出去,姐妹二人被残酷的分开。年复一年,西莉在门口的邮筒中找寻南蒂的音讯,她始终期盼有一天能与南蒂再次重逢……

30.Madame Bovary

(包法利夫人)

它讲述的是一个受过贵族化教育的农家女爱玛的故事。她瞧不起当乡镇医生的丈夫包法利,梦想着传奇式的爱情。可是她的两度偷情非但没有给她带来幸福,却使她自己成为高利贷者盘剥的对象。最后她积债如山,走投无路,只好服毒自尽。福楼拜以貌似冷漠的态度,非常“客观”地揭示了酿成这一悲剧的前因后果,陈述了社会所不能推卸的责任。

这里写的是一个无论在生活里还是在文学作品中都很常见的桃色事件,但是作者的笔触感知到的是旁人尚未涉及的敏感区域。爱玛的死不仅仅是她自身的悲剧,更是那个时代的悲剧。作者用细腻的笔触描写了主人公情感堕落的过程,作者努力地找寻着造成这种悲剧的社会根源。

31.Brave New World

(美丽新世界)

《美丽新世界》英国作家阿道司·赫胥黎所著,是二十世纪最经典的反乌托邦文学之一。这部作品与乔治·奥威尔的《1984》、扎米亚京的《我们》并称为“反乌托邦”三书,在国内外思想界影响深远。

主要刻画的是机械文明下的未来社会中,人的“人”性被机械剥夺殆尽,处于“幸福”状态的人们以几种种姓产生于工业化的育婴房,接受种种安于现状的教育,热爱机械化的工作与生活方式。

32.A Walk in the Woods

(林中漫步)

西弗吉尼亚属于阿巴拉契亚山系地区,而这本《林中漫步》的作者就是一个阿巴拉契亚山系山路上的远行者。北美大地上有很多汽车前时代的牛马运输通道,比如著名的圣达菲大通道。另外也有一些供远足者步行的Trail,
而这阿巴拉契亚Trail由南至北绵延近两千英里,几乎都是山路。

《林中漫步》标题看来轻松,走起来艰难。走的过程中有雪,有熊,有山狗,有我们西弗吉尼亚的yahoo…这样的旅途必定非常刺激。在雪地里走迷路,在刺骨的寒风中露营,这应该都是很刺激的事情,刺激得能让一些远足者就此傻掉,疯掉,死掉。

33.Kite Runner

(追风筝的人)

12岁的阿富汗富家少爷阿米尔与仆人哈桑情同手足。然而,在一场风筝比赛后,发生了一件悲惨不堪的事,阿米尔(amir)为自己的懦弱感到自责和痛苦,无法面对哈桑,于是用计逼走了哈桑。不久阿富汗爆发战争,阿米尔被迫与父亲逃亡美国。

成年后的阿米尔始终无法原谅自己当年对哈桑的背叛。为了赎罪,阿米尔再次回到故乡,希望能为不幸的好友尽最后一点心力,却发现一个惊天谎言,儿时好友竟然是和自己同父异母的兄弟,为了救赎,他把哈桑的儿子带到美国,在一次聚会上,阿米尔再次放起了风筝。

34.All the Pretty Horses

(心灵神驹)

第二次世界大战结束不久,为摆脱生活的困境,约翰·格兰迪·科尔的母亲变卖了他们唯一的农场。虽然生计解决了,小约翰的心灵却受到深深的伤害,因为这个农场曾记载着他的成长历程。于是他和自己的亲密伙伴兰塞·劳伦斯一起离开了故乡,开始了一段冒险旅程。

他们一路北行,当走到边境地区时又结识了13岁的男孩布莱文斯,三人共同经历了许多艰难险阻,在克服困难的同时,也建立了深厚的友谊。最终他们来到一座庄园,在那里从事牧马工作,这也正是他们梦寐以求的牛仔生活。

世事多变,约翰同庄园主漂亮的女儿相爱了。而这份爱情从一开始就注定了悲剧的结局。他们在苦恋中挣扎。此后不久,一个意外的灾祸降临了,约翰因自卫而犯了谋杀罪被捕入狱。一切梦想都在这一刻被粉碎。约翰也在这一刻悟出了生命的真谛……

35.The Catcher in the Rye

(麦田里的守望者)

塞林格将故事的起止局限于16岁的中学生霍尔顿·考尔菲德从离开学校到纽约游荡的三天时间内,并借鉴了意识流天马行空的写作方法,充分探索了一个十几岁少年的内心世界。愤怒与焦虑是此书的两大主题,主人公的经历和思想在青少年中引起强烈共鸣,受到读者,特别是广大中学生的热烈欢迎。

《纽约时报》的书评写道:在美国,阅读《麦田里的守望者》就像毕业要获得导师的首肯一样重要。其后,《麦田里的守望者》直接影响了这一类小说的创作。

36.Grapes of Wrath

(愤怒的葡萄)

《愤怒的葡萄》以经济危机时期中部各州农民破产、逃荒和斗争为背景。俄克拉何马和邻近的得克萨斯、堪萨斯、阿肯色各州的农民负债累累,土地被大公司没收,无家可归,只得向西迁移,想在加利福尼亚州寻找出路。

小说以约德一家为代表,记叙了他们一家十二口从俄克拉荷马州向加利福尼亚州逃荒的艰难经历。他们将家中的一切变卖后,换来一辆破旧的汽车,一家坐车向西逃荒。途中年轻的诺亚和康尼则在半路上开了小差。到了加州,一切并不像他们想像的那样美好,等待他们的仍然是失业、饥饿和困苦。

那里的农场主利用剩余的劳动力压低佃农助工资,各地势力敲诈勒索和迫害流浪的农民。于是农民愤怒了,他们团结起来,奋起抗争。小说标题《愤怒的葡萄》中的“愤怒”便是对导致人们贫困的不公的社会制度的强烈抗议。

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