2012-10-28大陆托福机经转播

  听力

  第一题,女生要转专业到生物系【题:为什么去找老师】,男老师表示她可能时间来不及可能要延迟毕业,女生说她知道这点,所以她来问下,能否参加生物系的summer course,男老师说已经截止了,女生问有什么其他办法,是否可以到附近的其他院校修这一专业的课程,然后代替学分。男老师说附近的York大学有一个很好的summer course,其中有A、B、C等等课程【题,为什么提到C】,女生说这个听着不错,但是她差3门课,summer course只有2门,还差一门,她打算做research,但是老师说教授们都放假了找不到了,建议她可以明年summer再做research【题:她打算怎么做】

  阅读

  第一篇是讲两河流域为什么会发展的快,主要是因为agriculture,还有一个原因是copper,另外它的发展催生了一种writing的诞生。起初那个地方的人是用writing来记事的,后来用来做很多东西。

  第一篇感觉没做好,读了好长时间,干扰也比较大。

  第二篇是讲花粉传播

  风传播花粉是一个很通常的情况,在temperate areas很常见,原因是dominant trees 很少,而且trees species 很多都是一样的,所以传播的机会大。举了一个例子是说,一个人爬到屋顶然后朝对面扔书,他希望能接到书的那个人接到书的几率很小,于是说明前面那种情况成功率低。 在tropical area,animals like insects通常传播花粉,成功率高。

  后面讲要想风传播花粉成功率高的因素:1.树要足够高 2.风力要足够大 3.pollen的数量要足够大

  后面没什么印象了

  句子插入题:前面说了两种植物的pollen的数量,4和5.4,然后插入的句子是就算他们的pollen数量大,但是如果缺少什么什么原因,成功率还是很低。

  还有一道单词题是,respectively=seperately. 单词题出现在句子插入内容的位置。

  第三篇:关于chimpanzee是否能学会语言的问题

  两个黑猩猩,一个N.一个W用他们做实验,把他们放到只有signing没有speaking的人中间,还有children who are deaf中间,看他们能否学会signing language.结果证明黑猩猩可以学会signing language,而且更surprising的是他们的language structure 跟children是一样的。

  黑猩猩可以表达两个单词组成的句子,例如“Nim-eat”(Nim是一个黑猩猩的名字)用这种two-structure来表达自己的观点。但是黑猩猩不能表达三个及三个以上的单词,他们即使表达出来,后面所加的东西也是对前面two-structure的重复。

  但是黑猩猩跟children不一样的是,黑猩猩不能communicate,不能transform information,他们说话也是random的,不会像小孩子一样你说一句他说一句,黑猩猩的说话频率(诸如此类的)比较随机

  这里random有一道词汇题,我选的chance,不知道对不对。

  口语

  Task 1

  Your university is planing to allow students to watch TV in theirs dormitories. What is your opinion and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages of watching TV in dormitories. Include reasons and examples to support your response.

  Task 2

  Some people believe that teachers should give students assignments in class. Others believe that teachers should give students assignments by sending emails. Witch why do you think in better and why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

  Task 3

  【学校通知】:大学计划增加校车班次和走更合理路线。好处1、对学生来说更方便。好处2、学生可以不用开车来学校了。【学生态度】:女生赞成。理由1、如果她有两节课是连着的话,一个在这栋楼一个在那栋楼,去另外一栋楼不方便,会迟到。理由2、目前校车班次太少,她以前坐校车经常迟到,所以她只有开车来学校,但现在汽油很贵,很花钱,这个计划可以使她省很多钱。

  请1028考完的童鞋重点帮我完善一下下面这些不全的机经吧。谢谢!

  Task 4

  【名词解释】:???(??叫什么名字,中英文):当遇到危险时,动物会发出一种特别的声音里警告同伴,他的同伴就会逃走。【教授举例】:教授举了一个例子。有一种猴子,他发现他的敌人——种老鹰,他会发出特别是声音来警告同伙,其他猴子逃走,不同的声音代表不同的捕猎者。同时,一种鸟听到猴子的声音,竟然能识别出危险,于是逃走!

  Task 5

  【学生困难】:男生他答应他朋友下午5点要开车送他朋友去上班,但他有个会议也是在5点。时间冲突了。

  【解决方案】:两个方案:方案1、打电话给他朋友,取消送他朋友。方案2、送朋友去工作,但开会可能迟到。转述男生的困难和方案,你的建议及理由。

  Task 6

  【讲课要点】:Late 19th的读报纸的人比过去多因为两个原因:原因1、advance in technology, eg. better printing devises and printing process faster, so the amount of newspapers is increasing。原因2、publishers base their fund more heavily on the advertisements, so the cause of publishing newspapers is less.

  写作

  Topic 水星上为什么会出现的黄光?

  阅读:水星上出现的黄光有三个原因 proposes 3 causes

  1、由于太阳的紫外线照射,氧原子变成氧分子,这个过程生成黄光。

  2、闪电是原因。

  3、由于地方天气不同看见的幻象。

  听力:

  1、这个过程生产的是绿光,不是黄的。

  2、闪电常常在发生在白天,晚上很少发生,但黄光是在晚上发生的。

  3、观察是不同的人,地方和机器都看见了,不是幻想。

【每日一练】SAT语法句子改进题(35)

距离11月8日的SAT考试越来越近啦,要参加此次考试的童鞋一定要认真备考哦!早日实现自己的留学梦。下面是我们为大家带来十月份的SAT每日一题系列项目,借此帮助各位考生更好地备考SAT考试,我们将在第一时间内提供题目的答案与解析。希望大家积极参加练习,努力提高自己SAT写作能力!来看看今天为大家带来的SAT句子改进题目!

Writing > Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

Their part of the reconstruction process that followed the Second World War, the nations of Western Europe took steps toward achieving greater political and economic integration.

(A) Their

(B) The

(C) It was

(D) As

(E) On

答案:D

解析:Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by using the preposition “As” to indicate what the “steps toward … integration” were a part of.

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美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  舒适的环境可以让学生们的学习事半功倍,但问题是有时候这些图书馆太过于华美以至于让学生们不能专心于学习。这个时候,千言万语也比不上一张照片有力量,这也是所谓的无图无真相吧。那就让我们来看看最美的美国大学图书馆究竟是什么样子。

  1.

  Harvard 哈佛大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:哈佛大学图书馆是美国最古老的图书馆,也是世界上藏书最多、规模最大的大学图书馆。哈佛大学图书馆有一个目标:就是要使学校达到“教育的珠穆朗玛峰”,占据世界第一流的位置。

  2. Columbia

  University 哥伦比亚大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:1754年建立于纽约市,为英王学院图书馆,还有中国族谱、家谱、谱谍约950种,是中国的图书馆以外收集最丰富的图书馆。

  3.

  Princeton 普林斯顿大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:普林斯顿大学图书馆主要的馆址为燧石图书馆(FirestoneLibrary),拥有超过六百万册藏书。在美国大学图书馆排名中列第18位,其规模并不算大,但是经过近3个世纪的历史积累,该馆储藏了不少优秀的古籍和善本。

  4.University

  of Chicago 芝加哥大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:该图书馆位于芝加哥大学的校园内,周围被风格迥异的建筑围绕。设计的一个重要构思就是把350万册图书建立在精心设计的“盒子”里面。

  5.

  Cornell 康奈尔大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:康乃尔大学图书馆共有20个单位,是美国其中一所最大的学术研究图书馆。红楼梦抄本甲戌本现存于此。胡适所献。尤里斯图书馆后面的钟楼每天都由学生表演敲钟音乐。每天太阳下山时演奏校歌及其它音乐,参观者可以在钟楼中看他们演奏。

  6. Duke

  University 杜克大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:如果你看到了这个图书馆里学生单独或者集体学习的场面,你一定会对这个图书馆的容纳表示赞赏。它的建筑风格也一定会让你钦佩,你进入图书馆,首先就会喜欢上它的温暖舒适的学习环境。

  7. MIT 麻省理工大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:麻省理工图书馆的使命是创造并持续提供一个易用的、值得信赖的信息环境,这种环境要有利于在学习和创造知识。麻省理工学院致力于创建能够推动和便于全世界范围内的学术信息交流的战略和系统的图书馆。

  8. Yale

  University 耶鲁大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:耶鲁大学图书馆是美国第一世界上规模第二的大学图书馆,拥有藏书1100万册,坐落于22座建筑物中。这是一座集中各种优点的图书馆:阅览室大厅雍容华贵,行政管理简明便利,还有一个金碧辉煌的展览大厅,自中欧的巴罗克图书馆以来绝无仅有。

  9. Stanford

  University 斯坦福大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:这所是全美第二大校园图书馆,大学的第一任校长戴维·乔丹很重视图书馆的作用,他曾经写下这样的感慨:“一个伟大的图书馆是建立一所伟大的学府的必然要素。”

  10. University of

  Washington 华盛顿大学的图书馆

  美国十所著名大学的图书馆(多图)

  点评:华盛顿大学建于1861,位于华盛顿湖和波蒂奇湾及联合湾之间,占地超过700英亩。

  每个学期总有那个几个星期的夜里,你蜷缩在书桌上,摄入过多咖啡因却依然疲惫不堪,脑袋里全是paper的截止时间。不知道你有没有突然停下来看看四周,也许你就正坐在最美的美国大学图书馆里。

【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告

  2014年上半年中国大陆地区一共举行了23场雅思考试,对于即将参加下半年考试的考生们,最想了解的莫过于这半年来的考试情况,以便于为接下来的考试做好准备,做到心中有数。现在我们就来对上半年的雅思考试做一个全面回顾吧。

一、雅思听力:新旧搭配,主流填空

2013年雅思听力题基本上以“两旧两新”组合出现,而2014年上半年的听力在基本延续之前模式的基础上,也出现了一点新的变化:既有开年几场的“四旧”,还有“一旧”和“三旧”的情况出现,“四新”还未出现。详情请参读下方的统计表。


【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告图1

题型方面,半年来听力考察的题目大部分是填空题,其次是选择题,再者是频繁出现的配对题目。各部分比例分布图如下:

【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告图2

再看一下听力音频所涉及的话题场景。在上半年92个听力录音中,排名TOP 5的话题为:

1. 旅游类——14篇

2. 咨询类——10篇

3. 课外活动类——9篇

4. 课程类——8篇

5. 工作类——7篇&生态环境、动植物类——7篇

下半年备考建议:

“填空成为主流,单选紧随其后,配对频繁出现”的这一出题模式意在打破部分考生试图单纯使用技巧去猜答案的心态,不断强调学生的英文能力的提升。

那么,我们就来简单讲讲雅思听力三种高频题型的练习方法。

1.填空题练习方法

填空题数量的增加,旨在考察学生对单词音的辨析及拼写能力,从而进一步考察考生对英文的运用能力。

填空的内容包括人名、国籍、地址等。关于人名和地名在雅思考试中的拼写是经常出现的考点,其中的人名和地名一般都会逐个字母拼读出来,考生应一字不差将其听写下来,拼写中任何一个字母的错误,都会导致该题目不得分。遇到填空题时,要提前阅读题干,尽量预测将会考的内容,充分做好答题的准备。

2. 单选题练习方法

从内容上看,雅思选择题通常都是一些对话、讲课或演讲。

从考点上看,雅思选择题往往考察的是“同义替换”。题干与原文的同义替换;正确选项与原文的同义替换;考生在选择答案时,可先找出不正确的答案,同时注意考虑所有的选项,不要看到一个认为正确选择的时候而忽略了其他选择,有时候最后的选择是完整的。如不看清楚,可能只选择了一个“部分正确”的答案。

3. 配对题练习方法

考生在预浏览时,一定要注意已有的配对内容,并将它们分类。譬如,如果有三个选项要你将他们和每一个问题相匹配,就应注意对话可能会分成三大块。

在配对中,往往都会给多个选项。有的选项是主题,留心听已给的选项,一旦听到了已给的选项,接下来再听到的便是答案。

二、雅思阅读:科技文化,判断为主

我们首先看一下上半年雅思阅读在题型方面的统计图表。


【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告图3


【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告图4

从上面的图表可以看出判断题、搭配题、单选题的出题频率占了一半以上的“江山”,其中,仅判断题所占比例就为1/4。之前的分析也发现,雅思阅读一直是以三大基本题型(判断题、搭配题、单选题)为主,其他题型为辅进行测试的。可见在出题的题型方面还是相对比较稳定的。

阅读篇章的话题方面我们做了如下的统计:


【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告图5

从上表可以看出,除文化和科技类占比稍微高些,其他类型之间的篇章数目差距并不大。

下半年备考建议:

雅思考试阅读题型模式趋于稳定,题库的更新速度也比较固定。虽然不排除雅思官方为了精益求精而进行改革的可能性,但是相对于目前的考试来说,雅思阅读题材和题型上均不会有太大的变化。

为各位考生总结了以下雅思阅读考试的实战技巧。

1. 合理安排答题时间

在考试过程中,每组题都有答题参考时间,当所给时间结束时,就一定要停下来,即使这组题没有做完也要开始回答下一组题,否则所能完成的题数就会减少,从而影响最后的分数。

2. 阅读所给文章前查看试题布局和问题,包括:

阅读试题每一部分的开头与结尾;

每部分有多少道题;

每部分(或每组题)的答题时间;

先回答哪些问题。

在开始阅读文章前,应首先弄清楚需要回答的问题,带着这些问题,有的放矢地去读那些与题目有关的内容,有些部分则完全不看,这样就可以节省出更多时间,达到事半功倍的效果。

三、雅思写作:图表交替,话题多样

Task 1题型分布


【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告图6

雅思小作文方面,各类图表交替出现,还不时出现几次图表混合的情况,目的是考察考生的综合分析对比能力。

Task 2话题分布


【考情回顾】2014年上半年雅思考试考情分析报告图7

雅思大作文的话题,主要围绕着工作生活、教育类话题展开探讨,其他话题穿插其中,更体现了作文考试命题的多元化趋势。

下半年备考建议:

写作方面建议各位烤鸭:

1. 每种话题的文章,考前至少写20篇提纲,锻炼思维;

2. 尽量把字迹写工整,尽管字迹工整与否并不是评分的标准范畴;

3. 小作文不要用太复杂的句式,尽量用最精辟的语言表达出最完整的信息;

4. 熟练掌握大作文写作框架,每种类型的文章,考前至少写3篇,锻炼语言。

四、雅思口语:旧题翻新,稳中有变

对于其他科目而言,雅思口语考试题目难度相对稳定。据以往的经验,口语新题一般集中在每年1月、5月、9月出现。在今年5月换题月中可以看出口语的“新瓶装旧酒”还是比较明显的,替换率在50%左右。添加或改变限定词是考官“新瓶装旧酒”的主要手段。如关于“名人”的话题,1-4月份的问题为“Describe a famous person who is important to your country.”,到了5月份,则变为“Describe a famous person, not from your country, who you would like to meet.”,关于“建筑”的话题,1-4月的提问为“Describe a historic building that you visited.”,5月份换了几个限定词,摇身一变成为“Describe an important building in your hometown.”

下半年备考建议:

在9月份新一轮换题季来临前,上半年口语考试中的新旧话题都是备考准备的重点。致力于口语7分以上的同学,在备考过程中需要对各种类型的话题多进行练习、思考,准备好自己的例子,避免模板化的背诵,做到考试中真正的与考官交流,而不是简单的背诵,这样在考试时能给考官“耳目一新”的感觉,赢得考官的认可,从而获得高分。

【GMAT大改】4月16日起GMAT考试时间缩短半小时 还有这些地方有调整

GMAT考试又迎来了一年一度的大调,这次2018年4月16日开始,GMAT考试将由4小时缩短至3.5小时!小编将详细介绍GMAT重大调整内容,希望能为广大挣扎在GMAT备考上的童靴提供帮助。

【GMAT大改】4月16日起GMAT考试时间缩短半小时 还有这些地方有调整图1

GMAT这妖作的可是越来越大,从16年开始,基本一年一大改,并且就在昨天,又来了一场大改革!这是继去年7月16日可以自选考试顺序后的又一重大改革……

GMAC官方邮件截图:

【GMAT大改】4月16日起GMAT考试时间缩短半小时 还有这些地方有调整图2

既然时间减少了,题目数量也当然做了相应的缩减:

■ Quant部分

题目由之前的37题,缩减到31题。

考试时间由75分钟,缩减到62分钟。

■ Verbal部分

题目由之前的41题,缩减到了36题

考试时间由75分钟,缩减到65分钟。

■ IR和AWA部分不变

考试难度不变,题量和时间上都有缩减,这看起来貌似不是一件坏事,那对其他方面有什么影响呢?

1、容错率不会有影响

官方通知中有一句话:

This change will not affect GMAT exam scoring as the number of scored
questions will not change.

了解GMAT考试的童鞋们都知道,在考试中,语文、数学有些题目是不算分的,像GMAT/GRE这类自适应的机考考试,官方命题组在命制了新题后,为了检验新题的质量和难度,会把新题放入考试中进行测试,我们称之为unscored
questions测试题目,而这些测试题目不管做对做错,都不影响考生的得分。

其中,语文部分的测试题目是11道题,数学部分的测试题目是9道题。

所以,官方说得已经非常清晰,此次改革语文部分和数学部分减少的题目都是unscored questions,而真正影响得分的scored
questions是不变的,所以得分的容错率不会因此而改变。

2、现有的题源资料、备考方法不受影响

官方原话:

The exam content, question types, and average time per question will not
change.

也就是说,考试的题目形式、题库、做题套路都是保持不变的。

所以啊,OG、PREP该做还是得做!

3、减轻考生考试的疲劳感

仔细算一下,过去的做题时间:

V:1.82分钟一道题 Q:2.02分钟一道题

而改革后的做题时间:

V:1.80分钟一道题 Q:2分钟一道题

每道题少了0.02分钟啊!当然了,如此微小的时间差可以忽略不计,重点是你们将会在考场上少待半个小时啊!

最后,报名了5月6日之前考试的同学,在4月11日前致电官方可以免费改期,但是需要表明你是因为这一政策所选择的改期,每个考生只有1次机会。

以上就是GMAT2018大改最新内容,备考GMAT的童靴上官网了解详细情况,祝大家都能考个好成绩哦。

10篇有趣的小短文竟然能让你记住2000单词

  Hiding behind the loose dusty curtain, a teenager packed up his

  overcoat into the suitcase. He planned to leave home at dusk though

  there was thunder and lightning outdoors. He had got to do this

  because he was tired of his parents? nagging about his English

  study and did not want to go through it any longer. He couldn?t get

  along well with English and disliked joining in English classes

  because he thought his teacher ignored him on purpose. As a result,

  his score in each exam never added up to over 60.

  His partner was concerned about him very much. She understood

  exactly what he was suffering from, but entirely disagreed with his

  idea. In order to calm him down and settle his problem, she talked

  with him face to face and swapped a series of learning tips with

  him. The items she set down helped him find the highway to studying

  English well.

  The teenager was grateful and got great power from his friend?s

  words. Now, he has recovered from being upset and has fallen in

  love with English.

  爱上英语

  有个少年躲在积满灰尘的松散窗帘后把大衣装入手提箱。尽管外面正打雷闪电,

  他仍计划在黄昏时分离家出走。他不得不这样做是因为厌倦了父母对他英语学习的唠叨,不想再忍受下去了。他的英语学习总是无法取得进展,而且不喜欢参加英语课的学习,因为他以为老师有意忽视他。结果,他每次考试的分数合计从未超过60。

  他的搭档很关心他,也确切地理解他遭受的折磨,但却完全不同意他的想法。为了使他冷静下来好好解决问题,她和他面对面地交谈,并交换了一系列的学习心得技巧。她写下来的条款帮助他找到了学好英语的最佳捷径。

  这个少年非常很感激,并从朋友的话里获得极大的动力。现在,他已经从沮丧中恢复过来,真正爱上了英语。

  Voyages of people from England play an important part in spreading

  the English language. At present, English is frequently spoken as

  an official or common language in many countries, such as America,

  Singapore, Malaysia and some African countries. All based on

  British English, the English spoken in these countries can be well

  understood by native English speakers. But actually, these

  Englishes have been gradually changing in accents, spellings,

  expressions and the usage of vocabulary.

  Because of this fact, you can make use of the differences to tell

  which country the foreigners of your block are from. For example,

  if a boss fluently commands his driver, ?Come up straight to my

  apartment by elevator and take some gas for my trucks and cabs?,

  instead of requesting, ?Please come to my flat by lift and take

  some petrol for my lorries and taxis?, you can recognize his

  American identity, while the latter suggests that he is

  British.

  不同的国家有不同的英语

  英国人的航海在英语的传播中扮演了重要的角色。目前,英语在许多国家被作为官方语言或通用语言频繁地使用,例如美国、新加波、马来西亚和一些非洲的国家。这些国家的英语都以英式英语为基础,能很好地为以英语为本族语的人所理解。但是实际上,这些英语在口音、拼写、表达和词汇的使用方面都在逐渐变化。

  因为这一情况的存在,你就可以利用这些英语之间的区别说出你们街区的外国人是哪个国家来的了。例如,如果有个老板流利地命令他的司机:“Come

  up straight to my apartment by elevator and take some gas for my

  trucks and cabs(直接搭电梯到我公寓上来拿卡车和出租车的汽油)”,而不是要求说,“Please come to my

  flat by lift and take some petrol for my lorries and

  taxis(请直接搭电梯到我公寓上来拿卡车和出租车的汽油)”,你就可以轻易地辨认出他的美国人身份,而后者却暗示着那是一位英国人。(请注意:听力录音里第二段两个“电梯”的单词跟原文不一致,原文是对的,录音弄错了,elevator才是美式说法而lift是英式说法。)

  My sister was fond of traveling. Ever since graduating, she had

  been determined to organize a trip to an old temple. Since

  transporting fare was expensive, she decided to use a bicycle to

  cycle there not caring about the disadvantages. Her stubborn

  attitude was always her shortcoming. Once she made up her mind to

  do something, no one could persuade her to change her mind.

  Finally, we gave in as usual though we preferred to take a train.

  After we prepared everything, including the schedule, reliable

  weather forecast and the insurance, we began our trip.

  Our journey was along a river flowing from a high altitude. Our

  pace was slow because the river frequently had many sharp bends

  through deep valleys, where the water seemed to boil. Just as I

  recorded in my journal, it was really a hard journey. But we also

  enjoyed great views. One night, I put my head on my pillow–a

  parcel of wool coats, and lay beneath the stars. When the flame in

  front of our cave went out at midnight, I found the sky so

  beautiful!

  一次辛苦的旅行

  我的妹妹很喜欢旅行。自从毕业以来,她就下定决心要组织一次往一座古庙的旅行。因为交通费用昂贵,她决定骑自行车去,毫不担心其中的不利情况。顽固的态度一直都是她的缺点,一旦她下定决心要做的事,就没有人能说服她改变主意。最后,我们像往常一样让步,尽管我们更喜欢乘火车去。我们准备好了所有东西,包括时间表、可靠的天气预报,还有保险,就开始了旅程。

  我们的旅程沿着一条从高海拔处流下来的河流前行。但我们的步伐很慢,因为当流经深深的峡谷时,这条河流急转弯很多,急湍的河水都似乎沸腾起来。正如我在旅行日志里记录的那样,这真是一次艰苦的旅行。但是我们也欣赏到了美丽的景色。一天晚上,我把头枕在一包羊毛衣服做的枕头上,躺在星空下,当岩洞前的火焰在午夜熄灭时,我发现夜空是如此的美丽!

  Dirty water rose in wells and canals before the earthquake. But no

  one judged that an earthquake was coming. Suddenly, everything

  shook. It seemed as if the world was at an end. Millions of brick

  houses and a number of dams were destroyed. Railway tracks became

  useless bars. Pipes in mines burst and let out smelly steam. Huge

  cracks trapped cyclists everywhere.

  The next day, this event was the headline or main title of all

  newspapers. With the reporters giving an outline of the disaster,

  the whole nation was shocked by the damage and the victim?s extreme

  suffering. People were moved when they read that the survivors

  comforted each other by saying ?Congratulations! You survived!?. So

  they not only expressed their sympathy sincerely, but also

  organized together to help the victims right away. The injured were

  rescued and the dead were buried. The frightened survivors were dug

  out from under the ruins and were offered shelter, fresh water and

  electricity. Thanks to people?s help, the loss was minimized.

  可怕的地震

  地震前,水井和运河里的污水都涨涌起来。但是却没人判断出地震即将来临。霎那间,一切都在摇晃,似乎整个世界就要结束。数以百万的砖房和许多水坝遭到破坏;铁路轨道都变成无用的铁条;煤矿管道纷纷爆裂,发出有臭味的蒸汽;到处都有骑车的人被巨大的裂缝陷住。

  第二天,所有报纸都纷纷以大字标题或主要标题报道了这一事件。记者们描述了灾难的大概情况,全国都被地震的破坏和灾民们极度的苦难所震惊。当人们读到幸存者以“恭喜啊,你还活着。”来互相安慰时,都被感动了。人们不仅衷心地表达了他们的同情,而且还立刻组织起来帮助灾民。伤员被救助了,死者被埋葬了,吓坏的幸存者被从废墟中挖出来了,栖身处、净水和电力也很快得到提供。多亏了人们的帮助,灾区的损失被减到了最小。

  As the founder of the republic, the president had many good

  qualities. Before coming to power, he was a generous lawyer. He was

  willing to selflessly help everyone who turned to him. He accepted

  no fee to offer legal guidance and opinions to those who were out

  of work or uneducated. Later, believing all mankind to be equal, he

  devoted himself to stopping the unfair anti-black laws. He set up

  the Black Youth League and was voted to be the leader. However,

  though he kept peaceful principles without violence and terror, his

  mean enemies still blew up his house and attacked his relatives,

  and he himself couldn?t escape being sentenced to 30 years in

  prison.

  Not fearing of the prison guards? cruelty, he kept active and

  begged no mercy from them. As a matter of fact, he was always

  hopeful and never lost heart during the stage even though he was in

  trouble.

  Finally, people rewarded him with the leader?s position and a gold

  blanket.

  伟大的总统

  作为共和国的创始人,这位总统具备许多的优秀品质。还在掌权之前,他就是一位慷慨的律师。他愿意无私地帮助那些向他求助的人。他免费为失业的,或没有受过教育的人提供法律指导和意见。后来,因为相信所有人类都是生来平等,他全身心投入到废除不平等的反黑人法律工作中。他建立了黑人青年团并被选为领袖。然而,尽管他坚持没有暴力、没有恐怖的和平原则,卑鄙的敌人还是炸毁了他的家、袭击了他的亲属,他自己也无法逃脱被判30年徒刑的遭遇。

  在狱中,他毫不畏惧狱警的残酷,始终保持积极的态度,不向他们乞求怜悯。实际上,他在任何一个困境时期都充满着希望,从未灰心。

  最后,人们以领袖的职位和一块金毯子回报了他的贡献。

  A wooden vase from the Ming Dynasty at the entrance of the

  reception hall amazed everyone. The artists designed it in a rare

  style and selected valuable jewels to decorate it. People thought

  highly of its fancy colour of honey and the beautiful paintings on

  it.

  The vase used to belong to a former castle. But when the country

  was at war, the enemy troops exploded the castle. Debates on how

  the vase survived went on and on. In order to remove people?s

  doubt, a team of no less than 20 people carried out an informal

  investigation. The evidences they found showed that a maid took the

  vase apart and asked a sailor to sink it in a local well. She never

  gave away the secret even under the cruel trial of the enemies who

  were in search of treasures.

  It is worth giving this brave maid a fortune in return.

  勇敢的女仆

  接待大厅入口处的明朝木制花瓶

  使每个人都惊奇不已。艺术家以一种罕有的风格设计它,并挑选了贵重的珠宝装饰它。人们高度赞赏它那蜂蜜般的奇特颜色,还有上面绘制的绘画。

  这个花瓶曾经属于一座从前的城堡,但在战争期间,敌人的军队炸毁了城堡,于是关于这个花瓶是如何幸存下来的争论就一直在持续着。为了解开人们的疑问,一个由不少于20人的调查队开展了一次非正式的调查。他们找到的证据表明,有个女仆

  把花瓶拆开,然后让一名水手把它沉到当地的一个水井里。她从来没有泄露这个秘密,即使是在搜寻财宝的敌人残酷的审讯下。

  这位女仆真是值得给予一大笔钱作为对她的回报。想学习更多英语知识,请关注口袋英语aikoudaiyy

  Swifter, Higher and Stronger stands for the spirit of the Olympics.

  But fairness is the basis of this motto. Only when you win fairly

  will you and your homeland deserve the great glory. But nowadays,

  unlike the ancient honest slave competitors, some hopeless athletes

  who can?t bear the pain of training cheat when taking part in

  games. Medals seem to have magical power causing them to cheat, and

  the prize money has replaced the motto as their only goal.

  So, in the gymnastics event to be held in our city next month, one

  of the host?s responsibilities is to keep competitions fair. They

  advertised on posters outside the stadium to promise that every

  competitor is to have a regular physical examination in a gymnasium

  one after another. No one can bargain on this. The volunteers in

  charge will be very strict. It is foolish to cheat because they

  will not be admitted to compete and will even be fined as well.

  公平的比赛

  ?

  更快!更高!更强!”代表着奥运精神。但是公平却是这一格言的基础。只有当你公平地赢得比赛,你和你的祖国才会承受这样的光荣。但如今,不像古代那些诚实的奴隶参赛者,有些没有希望的运动员无法承受训练的痛苦,于是在参加比赛时作假。奖牌似乎有某种魔力使他们作假,奖金也已经代替了奥运格言成为了他们唯一的目标。

  因此,在我们市下个月即将举行的一场体操赛事中,主办方的其中一项责任就是要确保比赛的公平。他们在体育场外的海报上做广告,承诺说每个参赛者都将在体育馆一个一个地参加常规的身体检查。对此没有人可以讨价还价。负责此事的志愿者将非常严格。作假是很愚蠢的,因为他们将不被允许去竞赛,甚至还将被罚款。

  The goal of early calculating machines was to simplify difficult

  sums. But with the help of new technology, electronic chips

  replaced tubes and a revolution of artificial intelligence has

  arisen. From then on, the appearance of computers totally changed

  our lives. They can not only download information from the wet when

  connected by the network or mobile phone signals, but also solve

  different types of logical problems. With operators as their

  coaches, they can even control rockets to explore the moon and

  instruct androids with the human race?s characters to mop floors

  and watch over your naughty niece. Anyhow, computers are so helpful

  that they do bring happiness.

  However, computers are easily attacked by viruses. This reality has

  become a hard-to-deal with-problem. As a result, computers are

  dangerous in a way. So, personally, I worry about their universal

  applications in some fields, such as finance.

  电脑

  早期计算机器的目的是简化比较难的计算。但是在新技术的帮助下,电子芯片代替了电子管,一场人工智能革命由此掀起。从那时起,电脑的出现完全改变了我们的生活,它们不仅能在网络或移动电话信号的连接下从网上下载信息,而且可以解决各种类型的逻辑问题。在操作员的教练下,它们甚至还可以控制火箭探索月球,指导具有人类性格的机器人擦洗地板和照顾你调皮的侄女。不管怎么说,电脑都是如此的有用,以致的确给人们带来了快乐。

  然而,电脑很容易受到病毒的攻击,这一现实已经成为一个难以处理的难题,结果,电脑在某种程度上是很危险的。因此,就个人而言,我很担心电脑在某些领域,例如金融方面的广泛应用。

  Wildlife Protection

  Dinosaurs died out because of an unexpected incident. But wildlife

  today disappears or is in danger just because humans do harm to it.

  For example, tigers are hunted for fur to make carpets so that they

  can only live in secure reserves; grassland is destroyed without

  mercy so that dust storms come into being affecting distant

  cities.

  Last year, scientists saw some monkeys rubbing themselves with a

  certain kind of insects to protect themselves from fierce

  mosquitoes biting. According to the result of the inspection, they

  found that the insect contains a powerful drug, so local farmers

  were employed to catch the insects. The ending was that the insects

  disappeared from the whole zone. When told that it was a loss to

  humans, the farmers burst into laughter and responded, ?Our real

  loss is our decreasing income.?

  We should appreciate the natural balance and pay more attention to

  the importance of wildlife protection. Not until we succeed in

  letting wildlife live in peace, can we smile in relief.

  恐龙因一次意外事件而灭绝,但是今天的野生动植物却是因为人类的伤害而消失或处在危险中。例如,老虎被猎杀以获取做地毯的皮毛,以致它们只能生活在安全的保护区里;草地被毫不怜悯地破坏,以致沙尘暴开始影响遥远的城市。

  去年,科学家观察到猴子在身上擦某种昆虫来保护自己不受凶猛的蚊子的叮咬。根据检查的结果,他们发现这种昆虫含有一种具有强大效力的药物,于是,当地的农民都被雇来抓虫子。结果是,这种昆虫从这整个地区都消失了。当被告知说这是整个人类的损失时,农民们都突然大笑着回应道:“我们减少的收入才是我们真正的损失呢!”

  我们应该意识到自然平衡的重要,更加注意野生动植物的保护。直到我们成功让野生动植物安详平静地生活,我们自己才能如释重负地笑开颜。

  I was very sensitive to music. Just dipping into the music books

  briefly, I could sing or play well. To be honest, I always dreamt

  of becoming a famous folk actor. I was so confident that I never

  decreased my devotion.

  I formed my first band called ?Rolling Frog?. At the beginning, we

  relied on performing on instruments in pubs or to passers ?by to

  earn extra money in cash. Then we wore false beards to pretend to

  be the musicians whom people were familiar with. In addition, we

  attached humorous acts to our performances and played jokes on each

  other. Soon, our ?funny jazz? became famous and invitations to

  perform for broadcast stations began to come. Afterwards, we sorted

  out attractive music and made a record in a studio. A million or so

  copies were sold and we became millionaires.

  It was painful that the band broke up finally. But above all, I

  realized my dream to be a musician.

  我的第一支乐队

  我对音乐很敏感,只要简要地浏览一下乐谱,我就能演唱或演奏得很好。说实话,我一直都梦想着能成为出名的民间演员,自信的我从未减少过热爱。

  我组成的第一支乐队叫做“摇滚蛙”。开始,我们依靠在酒吧里或向路人表演乐器来挣些零花的现金。然后我们带上假胡子假扮人们熟悉的音乐家,除此之外,我们在表演中加上幽默的动作,互相开着玩笑。很快,我们的“滑稽爵士乐”出了名,到广播电台表演的邀请开始多起来。随后,我们把我们吸引人的音乐做了分类,在一间音乐工作室录制了1张唱片,大约卖出了100万张,这使我们都成了百万富翁。

  乐队最终的解散让我很心痛,但最重要的是,我实现了自己当音乐家的梦想。

拯救gre词汇的“复仇计划“!

  一、掌握GRE词汇复习策略

  1.词汇记忆不能只依靠死记硬背

  单词背诵以及需要扩展开来,努力联想与此单词相关的其它信息,或是词根,或是同、反义词,或是同类词,或是一些有趣的记忆方法,甚至谐音、形似等等方法都可以用,这就是发散、联想和跳跃式的思维。

  根据词汇的分类,归纳一些同类词、同义词,再重新开始复习单词,在这个过程中,考生就会发现自己很“自觉”地开始将单词与其它的单词联系并归类,记忆的效果会有很大的提高。完成第二遍复习后,再尝试独自进行单词联想、归类工作,这时候可就是今非昔比了!如此反复几遍后,掌握单词的效果就会有质的飞跃。

  2.打破常规多种感官结合利用

  我们都经常听磁带,常常会碰到这种情况:念也念完了,听也听完了,但一个英语发音再加几个汉语释义并不能充分唤醒单词记忆,所以最好的方法就是亲身制作真正切合自己实际情况的磁带,在自己读单词时,把自己读的内容用录音机录下来。

  根据单词的拼写和中文释义把单词和它的意思紧紧结合在一起,记忆效果非常好,也不耗费太多的时间。

  3.熟能生巧多阅读多练习

  第一步:做真题,充分体验GRE考试中词汇考试的侧重点和风格,为词汇备考提供指导作用;

  第二步:反复阅读高难度英文书籍,在阅读过程中会遇到大量GRE词汇,反复阅读又会帮考生熟记这些单词,在阅读过程中考生的阅读能力也会得到很大提高;

  第三步:多使用高难度词汇,可以试着改写一些简单的英文文章,把其中的简单词换成难词,体会词汇之间的差别;

  第四步:做词汇练习题,通过做大量的习题,反复强化单词印象,更好地理解词汇的含义。

  二、避免GRE词汇复习误区

  1.GRE词汇背诵只想背诵一遍

  这是GRE词汇记忆的常见误区之一,这种做法,除非你有过目不忘的能力,否则几乎是不可能的。相反,记忆单词的一个关键窍门正是“反复记忆”,即熟能生巧。反反复复背诵单词,在大脑中留下痕迹,形成有效记忆。所以考生可以晚上背两个list,早上复习晚上背过的两个list并再背新的两个list,以此类推。

  2.词汇记忆只把握中文释义

  GRE词汇背诵另一种常见误区,付出收不到应有的成效。很多考生背诵词汇都是不停地背诵单词及其中文意思,但是在英译汉的过程中一定会存在着一定程度上的误差,所以考生很容易就出现生搬硬套的现象,对词汇的理解不是很到位。

  3.自认为gre词汇量储备足够

  很多考生认为自己背完单词就可以不用复习直接做练习,这样的做法也是错误的,考生永远不可能记住GRE词汇中的所有单词,所以需要不断强化,通过做题练习记忆单词、巩固单词。在做题练习时,要有意识地把不认识的生词记下来,查查词典,总结归纳,攻克盲区和暗灰地带,增加词汇量和熟记程度。

  三、采用GRE词汇科学复习计划

  考生如何在备考过程中花费尽可能少的时间突破GRE词汇难关,下面小编就为大家分享一份两个月的备考复习计划。

  第一个月:

  第一天早晨背2个新list,晚上复习;第二天早晨首先复习前一天的单词,然后再背2个新的list,晚上复习4个;第三天早晨复习前一天的2个list,再加入2个新list,晚上复习,之后以此类推;如此,6天攻克12个list,周末再将这12个list复习一遍。一个月背完第一遍词汇书。

  目前市面上多数单词书,每一个词汇后面都有很多释义和额外的信息,在第一遍记单词的时候,要忽略它们,只要记住首要意思即可。贪多只会增加记忆的负担,事倍功半。

  第二个月:

  从第二个月开始,考生可以适当增加每天背的量,10天过一遍,不断反复,这样两个月的时间,每个单词都已经看过5-6遍,为以后的练习打下了牢固的基础。

  两个月后,通过做类比和反义的真题对单词进行巩固和辅助记忆,背词是为了实战、为了考试,在实战中检验自己的背诵效果、记忆单词当然是很重要。此时并不是说单词书就可以丢掉了。恰恰相反,每天仍然需要拿出2-3个小时的时间过单词,直到考试,否则就会遗忘。事实上,背单词需要不断的反复。

托福白话独立使命思路的来历

原标题:托福白话独立使命思路的来历

独立使命让我们最头疼的就是没有思路,或是有思路,可是当表达出来之后,给人的感触非常的空泛。学生总听到教师拼命地在说要生动的比方和有证明力度的比方,可是学生总也搞不理解究竟要把比方说成啥姿势才算契合教师的需求。

那么与其咱们自个来想,不如咱们从托福本身给咱们的资猜中去收罗出一些非常有用的比方。其实我们都晓得,托福的考试分红传闻读写四个有些,而不管那个有些触及的常识面都是恰当广泛的,咱们常开玩笑说托福的常识面掩盖了从Anthropology到Zoology的领域。

因而咱们完全可以把它作为一种非常好的材料来历,即在做完每一篇操练后,不妨细心研讨一下傍边究竟说了啥内容?把它收拾出来,然后可以给咱们白话独立使命供给恰当不错的思路。

无锡举世教育戴杲蔚教师在此给我们举例阐明。

早年的有道考题:

Some people think electronic books are better, others prefer to work with paper books. Which do you think is better and why?

TPO27白话task3就触及到了相同的论题:

Switch to Electronic Textbooks

The university will begin switching From traditional-bound textbooks early next year. University students will be able to download the content of their required textbooks to a reading device and read the material directly from the device’s screen. While the cost of the device is around $200, it is a one-time expense. Considering the rising cost of textbooks, students will save money in the long run since purchasing electronic books for their classes is much less expensive than buying regular textbooks. Furthermore, the university believe the device will be the an effective study aid because it is simple to operate and offers features such as highlighting of text and note-taking.

听力中男女人对话。女人对立这项抉择。因为她觉得,第一,电子书不可以能永久都只用一部,当它功用性晋级或许是有损坏的时分,你就得去买。所以运用电子书其实是会添加学生的费用。第二,电子书的键盘和功用键非常的小,正常标准的手指去操作起来很困难。而且她觉得用纸质的材料去进行书写和做笔记非常便利。

这篇白话材料其实把正说反说的思路都协助想好了,假定能在说这道标题的时分想到,那证明理由天然是充分到家了。

再比方说通常让学生头疼的画家的描绘或是艺术作品的描绘,托福考试资猜中早现已给了思路。这儿就不加以具体阐明晰,我们可以去参阅TPO1-listening-Rose Frantzen,或是TPO-11-Speaking-Outside Art。它们都供给了非常好用的材料。

所以说,假定可以好好消化这些材料,咱们的思路就能翻开许多。

有一种病,叫SAT考试焦虑症

2016年新SAT考试就要上台,

考SAT现已如此困难,竟然还有——

盛大上台的写作

要点转移的文法

日渐凶横的数学!!

考试狗只想呵呵(╯‵□′)╯︵┻━┻

(不要问我为啥,看↓↓↓)



<<<1>>>

备考前期

斗志满满,宝宝觉得此时——

大约有一个学习方案!


拿起手机,点开阅读器

查材料晓得变革要点……

在去网上看了经历帖…….



结!果!

一下午都在刷兄弟圈…微博…QQ空间…


– 咱们听过许多的道理

却照常方案欠好时刻_(:з)∠)_



<<<2>>>

眼看备考时刻曩昔一多半

是时分要给自个一点鸡血!

各莳花式学习法——

头悬梁锥刺股

无敌强力醒脑配备

让我学习让我飞!

结!果!

被海量的材料,成山的习题,

议论纷纷的说明弄晕了头


– 拼得毫无方向感

往前冲两步,又再踌躇一步



<<<3>>>

总算迎来了初度模考

温习备考感触还不错,

答完一切标题感触马粗心虎……


结!果!

分数下来整自个都欠好了!


– 花了许多时刻做无吃苦

感触是夸姣的,分数却是严格的



当麻麻得知考试成果

我的“老友”——近邻王蜀黍家的孩子上线

我的“同学”——不必刷题只刷手机的学霸上线

【传说中别人家的孩子 】


在碎碎念中,我逐渐地堕入了梦中……


新东方新SAT产品晋级发布会

即将在京举办

翻开全新SAT学习新方法

产品全新晋级+线上操练东西

为你的焦虑对症下药!



量身拟定一站式学习方案,

树立无缺常识体系,期间式前进


集全国骨干教师力气

线下+线上方法,随时随地教育练测

让成果升↑升↑不息!



新SAT产品全部晋级!马上解救你的焦虑症!

最抢手课程戳“阅览原文”马上选(↓↓↓)

3月SAT北美卷参考答案?这里有!

在北京时间今天早上,3月SAT北美考试也陆续结束了。本次考试作为2018年的开年大考,对于很多11年级准备早申请的同学来说,也是意义非同寻常。我们的老师在北美考完之后,也在第一时间为我们发回了考情速递。


首先,此次考试中,阅读的自然科学类文章相对简单。人文历史类文章相对较难。考场外就有很多本土考生反应“那个什么狄更斯的文章我看了8遍都没看懂”。


其次,此次考试中的语法和作文部分难度依旧不大。词汇题更倾向于考察形近词而不是近义词(比如weary和wary的考察),这让很多单词不是十分扎实的考生捡了个小便宜。


最后,数学部分的考察成为了此次考试中最大的爆冷部分。由于部分没有参与培训的同学仅仅依靠OG的guideline作为复习提纲,导致大家在遇到“微有超纲”的问题时,立刻慌了阵脚。尤其是此次考试出现的箱形图题目,难倒了一片考生。


接下来我们为大家放出此次考试中大家讨论最热的几个要点部分的答案及题目,刚考完的同学可以以此为参考进行估分。


第一部分:数学部分参考答案


第二部分:阅读部分原文


阅读第三篇:《美国札记》作者:查尔斯·狄更斯


But I may be pardoned, if on such a theme as the general character of the American people, and the general character of their social system, as presented to a stranger’s eyes, I desire to express my own opinions in a few words, before I bring these volumes to a close.


They are, by nature, frank, brave, cordial, hospitable, and affectionate. Cultivation and refinement seem but to enhance their warmth of heart and ardent enthusiasm; and it is the possession of these latter qualities in a most remarkable degree, which renders an educated American one of the most endearing and most generous of friends. I never was so won upon, as by this class; never yielded up my full confidence and esteem so readily and pleasurably, as to them; never can make again, in half a year, so many friends for whom I seem to entertain the regard of half a life.


These qualities are natural, I implicitly believe, to the whole people. That they are, however, sadly sapped and blighted in their growth among the mass; and that there are influences at work which endanger them still more, and give but little present promise of their healthy restoration; is a truth that ought to be told.


It is an essential part of every national character to pique itself mightily upon its faults, and to deduce tokens of its virtue or its wisdom from their very exaggeration. One great blemish in the popular mind of America, and the prolific parent of an innumerable brood of evils, is Universal Distrust. Yet the American citizen plumes himself upon this spirit, even when he is sufficiently dispassionate to perceive the ruin it works; and will often adduce it, in spite of his own reason, as an instance of the great sagacity and acuteness of the people, and their superior shrewdness and independence.


‘You carry,’ says the stranger, ‘this jealousy and distrust into every transaction of public life. By repelling worthy men from your legislative assemblies, it has bred up a class of candidates for the suffrage, who, in their very act, disgrace your Institutions and your people’s choice. It has rendered you so fickle, and so given to change, that your inconstancy has passed into a proverb; for you no sooner set up an idol firmly, than you are sure to pull it down and dash it into fragments: and this, because directly you reward a benefactor, or a public servant, you distrust him, merely because he is rewarded; and immediately apply yourselves to find out, either that you have been too bountiful in your acknowledgments, or he remiss in his deserts. Any man who attains a high place among you, from the President downwards, may date his downfall from that moment; for any printed lie that any notorious villain pens, although it militate directly against the character and conduct of a life, appeals at once to your distrust, and is believed. You will strain at a gnat in the way of trustfulness and confidence, however fairly won and well deserved; but you will swallow a whole caravan of camels, if they be laden with unworthy doubts and mean suspicions. Is this well, think you, or likely to elevate the character of the governors or the governed, among you?’


The answer is invariably the same: ‘There’s freedom of opinion here, you know. Every man thinks for himself, and we are not to be easily overreached. That’s how our people come to be suspicious.’


第三部分:写作部分原文


Our Failing Weather Infrastructure

—– by Kathryn Miles, Oct. 30, 2014 (The New York Times)


LAST week the National Weather Service’s satellite network crashed, leaving forecasters without crucial data as a large nor’easter swirled across the East Coast, dumping record levels of rain and leaving thousands of residents without power.


This network shutdown was the latest in a string of failures that has left the agency unable to meet the needs of the nation. Earlier this year, the service’s website collapsed under the weight of data requests from a single Android app. A month earlier, the service’s severe-weather alert system also crashed, creating a major disruption to communication that left residents from Colorado to the mid-Atlantic without key radar and warning information while a string of severe storms swept over their region. And in 2011, the National Weather Service website experienced what one official called a series of “catastrophic failures” just as a massive blizzard marched across the eastern half of the country.


Each of these instances revealed just how fragile our national weather program really is, and how desperately we need to invest significantly more in the weather infrastructure, technology and the kind of communication redundancies that will keep all of us safe.


This is not a new problem. For years, congressional allocations to the National Weather Service have all but flatlined. Meanwhile, the cost of storm recovery has skyrocketed. In the 20 years leading up to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, the United States suffered 133 weather disasters that exceeded $1 billion in damages, for a total of over $875 billion. Sandy, the second-costliest hurricane in the nation’s history, came with a price tag of an estimated $65 billion.


In the months after Sandy, the Department of Commerce issued a service assessment report, which evaluated the National Weather Service’s response to the storm. Its authors discovered understaffed forecasting offices, a shortage of products that convey storm threats to the general public and a real need for more staff training. These findings echoed a similar report issued after Tropical Storm Irene in 2011, which charged that gaps in technology, service and training had complicated forecasters’ ability to do their jobs.


But rather than address these shortages, in 2013 the National Weather Service was forced to put in place a hiring freeze and cut off funding for forecaster training and equipment maintenance, part of an 8.3 percent budget cut that came in the wake of the federal government’s budget sequestration. The National Weather Service now employs 288 fewer forecasters and technicians than it did when Sandy struck.


A report issued earlier this year by the union representing National Weather Service employees estimates that there are more than 500 job vacancies within the agency, 396 of which are considered “emergency essential” — forecasters and technicians who are on the front line of storm prediction and the issuance of watches, warnings and advisories.


For years, the National Hurricane Center has been stymied by what the Sandy assessment report called “a severe staffing shortage” in its technology and science branch, which is responsible for everything from software development to communicating watches and warnings. Thanks to budget constraints, the center employs just one full-time storm surge specialist, despite the fact that storm surge consistently kills more people than wind and is much harder to predict.


Meanwhile, existing forecasters are forced to cope with limitations that make their jobs difficult: radar that crashes, broken wind-detection devices, failing satellites and budget constraints that prevent them from utilizing tools like weather balloons.


Meteorologists at all levels of the National Weather Service are exceedingly talented, hardworking scientists. They can do far more than their jobs currently allow, including issuing seven-day storm forecasts and using global information systems to create surge maps that would assist emergency managers in evacuations. But, as one senior administrator at the National Hurricane Center told me, “we can barely keep the trains running.” And that’s a dangerous proposition for all of us.


This month is the second anniversary of Hurricane Sandy. And while the storm continues to hold the record as both the largest Atlantic hurricane ever and the second-most-expensive storm in our nation’s history, neither is the storm’s real legacy.


More than anything, Sandy revealed just how fragile our meteorological infrastructure has become — and just how vulnerable that makes us all. Currently, thousands of mid-Atlantic residents are still displaced from their homes. A class-action lawsuit against New York City revealed dangerous shortcomings in the city’s emergency management plan. And while meteorologists continue to debate the science behind the superstorm, they remain unified in their certainty that such a disaster will happen again.


An underfunded weather program will ensure that future disasters could be equally catastrophic. This is a matter of national security. If we don’t empower forecasters to do their work, our nation is at risk of losing billions in property and untold numbers of lives. What will make that eventuality all the more tragic is the fact that it will have been almost entirely preventable.


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