经验分享:备考达人托福IB考试阅读心经

  托福考试阅读心经

  在IBT阅读中,甚至可以扩展到ETS所有考试的阅读题目中,如果要用一个词来概括的话,那就是paraphrase,意译。无论是题干还是正确选项,大都能在原文中找出一句话来与之相对应。即题目是原文的意译。这种意译是通过同义词来完成的。即题干中多用近义词来对原文中的句子进行替换,来达到提出问题或者提出正确答案的意思。准确把握意译,是多数题目中准确在原文中定位信息、或者在迷惑选项中选出正确的那个,都有着重要的作用。在后面的文章里我会结合实例解释这一点。

  关于先看题目还是先看文章的问题。也就是做题时间安排的问题。在此问题上我与有的朋友也有过争执。我个人习惯是先用5—7分钟的时间通读全文,然后平均每个问题有1分钟的时间来回答。由于对问题的回答建立在了熟悉全文的基础上,每个问题又有足够的时间返回全文,每个选项都一一进行斟酌。我认为这样准确率比较高。但有的朋友本着居家过日子的心,认为1000多字的文章只出十几个题,必然有一些信息是没用的。这样通读全文就会浪费掉一些时间,不如先看题再回去找来的痛快。对此我不好妄加评论。每个人都应该通过考前大量的练习来制定出最为适合自己的方法。

  关于复习的时间安排。我认为,弄完词汇以后,就应该着手突击一下阅读了。如今各种各样的模拟题犹如英语辅导班一样大量涌现。不会出现我们早期考生有题舍不得做的情况了。但也不能太急功近利,单词没弄好就硬上阅读,有时候会适得其反。用1周的时间大量的突击,也是对单词的一个巩固。找到感觉以后就可以开始下面的复习了。复习听力口语作文的日子里,每天一定要最少做3篇文章的题量,按照考试的时间要求,千万不可放松。做得多了,就可以把阅读当作一种放松了。ETS的阅读文章能教给我们各种学科的基础知识。(这与GRE有区别。托福的专业性文章还都处于一个启蒙的专业水平上,不像G那么变)阅读还可以教给我们一些老美的思路,老美看待问题的方式。阅读不会像你想象的那样痛苦的。

  无论是OG还是Delta,都把阅读的题目分成十类,即:Understanding Facts and Details,

  Identifying Negative Facts, Locating Referents, Understanding

  Vocabulary in Context, Making Inferences, Determining Purposes,

  Recognizing Paraphrases (Simplifying sentences), Recognizing

  Coherence (Sentence inserting), Summarizing Important Ideas and

  Organizing information. 我将按顺序一一解释。

  还有很重要的一点,做题的时候,无论考试还是练习,不光要分析对的选项为什么对,更要分析错的选项为什么错。有时候分析错误的原因更为重要。有助于你把握出题的思路,培养感觉。这是非常有用的。

  一、直接信息题

  应该说直接信息题的难度并不大。用OG上的话解释:直接信息题主要是问考生直接在文中明确给出的信息。不需要进行推断。通常这类问题不会涉及到全文的主旨问题,而一般都考察某一两句话的相关信息。

  根据OG给出的解释来看,要做好直接信息题分三步:第一步,把冰箱门打开:准确在文章中定位出那一两句话;第二步,把大象装进去:根据这一两句话的内容选出正确答案;第三步,把冰箱门关上:用鼠标选中正确的答案^_^

  关于第一步:如何快速定位。就需要你在题干中找出有助于你定位的那个词。因为前面说过,题干中的话大多是paraphrase,所以这就需要你找出那些不容易被paraphrase的单词帮助你定位。一般以名词或者文章专门涉及到的词为主。遇到不太好找关键词的题干,尽量想办法减少搜索范围。以OG上的例子说明:

  第一步我们先找出关键词,即,根据哪个词我们在原文中定位信息。这样的词一般都是不容易被替换掉的。以具体名词居多。因为形容词,副词都是最容易找到近义词的。而越偏的词越不容易被paraphrase,

  比如“驴打滚”之类的,即使用“年糕”来替换,还是不合适的在这一题里,我们选择cannonballs。回原文找,cannonballs第一次出现在第六行,我们就看这一行上下的句子就可以了。从For

  example看起,早期的雕像上加一个炮弹是因为需要炮弹来支撑腿的重量。In other

  words是对这句话的解释,可看可不看。下面一句话:……quickly disappeared when sculptors

  learned how to strengthen the internal

  structure…。。看完这个我们就可以做题了。很自然的选择第二个选项。这句话连起来就是:Sculptors in the

  Italian Renaissance stopped using cannonballs in bronze statues of

  horses because they found a way to strengthen the statues

  internally. 这简直就是把原话换了种方式来说。Stopped using替代disappear,strengthen

  internal structure替代strengthen

  internally。用形容词替换同根的副词,这是最常见的paraphrase方法之一。

  掌握了以上要领,第一个类型的题就搞掂。我们再用Delta上面两个题巩固一下,来检验这种方法是否真的有效。

  定位信息。题干句子比较短,没有太多的词可供选择。对于mentor和protégé这种文章专门引入的词,一般在转译的时候不会做出改变,只是问中涉及该词的句子比较多,不太容易定位。好在help的意思大家太熟悉了,都很敏感,可以很快从文章中找出意思差不多的其他词来。我们选择mentor

  help protégé回原文定位。找到第四行我们发现有个teaching,mentors are given credit for

  teaching protégés the key elements of the job, and for providing a

  key relationship in the young adult’s shift from dependence on

  parents to complete independence.

  这句话,对于mentor对protégé的作用提到了两点,一一回到原文去找。发现C选项不就是原文第一点的转述吗?而原文中的第二点,key

  relationship…。,选项中没有提到。我们选择C答案。

  然后回过头来以胜利者的姿态审视这个题:teaching用help作了转译,key换成important,

  elements换成aspects,这不就是最完美的paraphrase吗?练习阅读,找到了一定的感觉你就会发现,有这种完美转译的单词的选项,一般都是正确的,看上去很舒服。而A中倒是有原文中的原词credit。当你选择的选项中,有不太难被替换的单词,但没有被替换掉,还是以原词形式出现,你一定要加以小心,有可能是正确的,但也极有可能是错误的。比方这个credit,虽然词没变,但是意思不太一样了。而且原文说的是mentors

  are given credit,题目中变成了giving protégés credit,所以是错误的。

  原文正好也有一个 difficult to know,信息找到。原文说…。 The most strongly

  motivated and skilled, 题目中是highly motivated and

  skilled。应该说是原文的意思一点没变,几乎连单词也没怎么变。所以我觉得这个题跟ETS风格还是有些许出入。看看如何paraphrase

  的:selected改成chosen,strongly改成highly。没什么问题。搞掂。

  二、反面信息题

  这种题最大的特点是有一个大写的NOT或者EXCEPT。根据ETS的解释,

  这种题也是来自文中给出的直接信息。要解决这个问题,需要在文中找出3个提到的选项,剩下的那一个就是答案了。而那三个文中有提到的信息,则可能分布在一段或者几段之中,跨度比上面的题大。

  这种题难度也就比上面那种大,因为要找“有”容易,找“没有”困难。所以这种题几乎唯一的方法就是排除法。需要注意的是,我们换个角度来看这种问题。那三个提到的信息,必然都是与题干相吻合的,因此是并列关系。要解决这种题,就需要我们对文章中的并列关系极为敏感。阅读的时候看到并列关系,特别是并列项为3项的并列关系,就要想到是不是有可能出反面信息题。特别注意表并列的词,firstly,

  one… is that, at first之类的,或者是moreover, in

  addition之类表示附加的词。有些文章的并列可能在一个句子里用几个逗号就解决;而有些则是提到一点之后详尽解释这一点,然后再讲其他的。这样需要我们找信息的时候把具体解释的内容跳过,直接从后面找跟它并列的内容。自然,这种题正确选项与原文的关系,依然是paraphrase.

  以OG上的那一段为例:

  因为篇幅的关系,OG这个例子不可能举一个贯穿几段的大并列,而只有这么一小段。这也就需要我们通读全段了。看到in

  addition to,知道这句和前面那句并列。第一句中did not consider useful是对A中thought art

  was unimportant的paraphrase, in addition的European was

  better是对C中American is inferior to European

  art的paraphrase,(对于比较级的句子,这是比较常见的paraphrase方法之一,即找形容词的反义词,把比较二者顺序倒过来就可)。而

  B选项的排除则需要用到一些做inference题的方法了,后面我会具体讲。第五行说In early

  1900,。艺术家们都想发展一门艺术that did not

  reproduce,说明从前确实copied,copy是对reproduce的paraphrase,

  这种推断的方法后面具体再解释。

  下面以Delta上面的例子做个解释:

  很明显的并列成分,有明显的引导并列的词:One, Another, On of the

  most…,正好三个。读文章的时候就应该想到可能出个EXCEPT的题。Air pollution是转述harmful air

  pollutants, hazardous waste是原词,the increasing amount是转述the increase

  in concentration of dissolved salts。

  再来一个:

  找到了一个非常关键的词,causes may also

  include…,明摆着告诉你这附近说的就是题目问的那回事。前面那句说一点,后面那句说一点,这句说一点,就能够排除三点了。A的错误不在于文章没有提到,而在于与文章提到的内容相悖。

  三、指代定位

  顾名思义,这种题是要问考生文中的代词具体指代的是什么丁冬,说专业点叫做先行词

  antecedent。基本可以分为四类。第一是人称代词或者物主代词,如I, you, our, mine;

  第二类是从句中的引导词,如what, which, who;第三类是指示代词,this, that(包括其指示的名词,如问this

  reason, that purpose之类的);第四类是其他的代词,all, most, some, many, the

  former, the

  latter之类。代词需要遵循的首要原则是就近原则。从前面找离它较近的那个词。找到以后把意义代回到原句中看合适不合适就可以了。OG还特别强调了,注意先行词和代词必须人称、单复数一致。总体来说这种题难度都不大。

  用OG上的几个例子说明:

  先行词,先行词,顾名思义,一般应该在代词前面。根据就近原则就找出来postal

  service。代回去看看合适不合适,A,distribution有65个office;

  B销售有65个office,C报纸有65个office,D,邮政服务有65个office。其他几个都太荒诞了。这种题难度相对不大,也就不多说了。

  四、词汇题

  这应该是所有题型里面最不需要技术的一项,也是最需要技术的一项。所谓不需要技术就是说,只要你认识这个单词,马上就能选出来,5秒钟就搞定;说需要技术是因为万一不认识,就要考验你的词根,对上下文的理解还有RP了。不要过分信任你猜你猜你猜猜猜的技巧,我觉得这种题还是比较容易出错的。有时候两个选项代回去意思都说得通。所以单词基础非常重要。但考试的时候遇到不认识的也别慌,该猜就猜。一般至少可以排除两个选项,剩下两个也别耽误太长时间,一分钟搞不定就当断即断吧。50%的把握,不小了。关于猜词技巧除了上下文,词根也挺重要的。掌握一些常见的词根还是挺有用的。前面单词贴里面说得很多,就不多说了。还有时候你不认识一个单词,但你觉得它“好像”是某个意思,应该大胆相信你自己。有时候潜意识是非常厉害的。

  用OG的话说,如果一个单词有多个意义,那么可能在题目中都会出现。要选择符合文中意思的一项。但我还没见过这样的。基本上错误的选项都不是该单词的准确意思。

  这种题实战练习作用不太大,就不举真题例子了。记得选好了把你所选的单词替换回去看看是不是能行得通。

【SAT干货】如何安排SAT考试时间更妥当

sat考试会从上午8点开始,大约下午1点结束。虽然看起来时间很长,但实际上还是非常紧张的。所以,同学们一定要学会合理安排。而今天,小编就准备了sat考试时间安排的内容,让我们一起来看看吧。

【SAT干货】如何安排SAT考试时间更妥当图1

阅读部分

阅读部分要求同学们在65分钟内完成5篇文章的阅读,并完成52道题,计算下来每道题的答题速度应该控制在75秒左右。如果在一道题上的时间花费超过一分钟的话,就应当最好标记下来然后先做别的题了。如果其他题目完成还有剩余时间,可以回头过来继续作答。新SAT阅读考试在改革之后分为四类文章:文学小说类、自然科学类、社会科学类及政治历史类。对于文学小说类文章和政治历史类文章都是中国考生接触较少的,尤其是一些议论性和叙述性的文章,这就要求我们平时多积累一些阅读素材,提高自己的专业能力和快速阅读文章的速度。对于新SAT阅读文章同时考察的是我们的信息提取能力,我们在考试的时候一定要抓住文章的基调和关键词。

语法部分

对于SAT考试语法部分来说,是35分钟内完成44道语法题,因此我们可以算起来平均下来每道题目应该是在60秒以内才行。对于这样sat考试时间安排,可能一些同学们会觉得不够,因此在平日备考时候就应该认真备考。比如养成收集语法错误的习惯,可以做个错题集,时常翻看,这样在真正考试面对sat考试时长的时候,就有足够的把握时间了。另外,在做sat语法考试的时候最重要的是结合上下文语境进行分析,因为新sat语法考试是在整片文章的大环境前提下展开的

数学部分

在sat数学部分分为不可用计算器部分和可用计算器部分,要求考生在80分钟内完成58道题,基本上在不使用计算器部分应该控制在25分钟完成,在可使用计算器部分应当在55分钟内完成,如果还有剩余时间的话,建议同学们及时复查。新增的知识点同学们一定不要忽视,还有在做题的时候一定不要轻敌,提高自己的做题效率。

写作部分

在sat写作部分,虽为sat考试的选考部分,但其重要性不容忽视。sat写作部分考察的是考生阅读,分析和写作能力。在阅读文章上,建议同学们将时间控制在7分钟,分析对阅读文章的理解以及文章中的论证元素最后都需要考生用自己的语言形式写出来。

【汇总贴】SAT考试考场详细介绍(亚洲考场+北美考场)

大陆考生如果想考 SAT 的话会选择临近的地区或者其他亚洲国家,如香港、澳门、台湾、韩国、新加坡和日本等。当然也可以选择北美考场。

【汇总贴】SAT考试考场详细介绍(亚洲考场+北美考场)图1

Contents(点击传送门进入)

1

SAT去哪考最靠谱?全球考场看这里

传送门
2

亚洲 SAT 六大考场最强介绍贴,送给2018备考的你!

传送门
3

SAT北美考场

传送门
4

【SAT考场】SAT香港考场规则及考试注意事项

传送门
5

SAT简介及新加坡考点地址

传送门
6

【SAT考场】韩国SAT考场线路及信息全知道

传送门
7

考生亲述:美国纽约SAT考场20条细则

传送门
8

【考试指南】SAT考场上6大细节性问题盘点

传送门
9

【SAT考场】SAT考场问题大集合、常见问题Q&A

传送门

【托福写作备考】托福独立写作观点分析及满分范文汇总

托福写作备考的过程中,很多同学都会在网上去找一些高分范文作文自己的参考资料。而在阅读这些资料的时候,大家往往都会更为关注一些,文章中的用词和语句。那么,是否有细心分析一下托福高分文章的写作观点呢?在以下内容中,就为大家带来托福独立写作观点分析及范文汇总,希望能为你的托福备考带来一些帮助咯。

【托福写作备考】托福独立写作观点分析及满分范文汇总图1
托福备考:独立写作观点分析及范文汇总

【考前必备】托福阅读十大题型之词汇题——Cinema

托福阅读词汇题怎么做?接触过新托福考试的考生应该对新托福阅读中的一类题型深有体会,甚至有的考生对其深恶痛绝,这一类题就是阅读的词汇题,即选择4个选项中和原文某一词汇意义表达相同的选项,很多同学面对这样的题目都会束手无策。那么,下面我们就为大家带来一些这样的范例,帮助大家如何应对这样的题目。

【考前必备】托福阅读十大题型之词汇题——Cinema图1

托福阅读词汇题:Cinema

【Paragraph 6】With the advent of projection, the viewer’s relationship with
the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices
such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine
that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic
cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public—an experience
that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others. Atthe
same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule
peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of
6 or 9 feet. (Early Cinema)

The word “It” in the passage refers to

○The advent of projection

○The viewer’s relationship with the image

○A similar machine

○Celluloid

The word “expanded” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○was enlarged

○was improved

○was varied

○was rejected

托福阅读词汇题答案:2、1

【官方指南】GRE OG阅读题大全之北大西洋的沉积物

Recent studies of sediment in the North Atlantic’s deep waters reveal possible cyclical patterns in the history of Earth’s climate. The rock fragments in these sediments are too large to have been transported there by ocean currents; they must have reached their present locations by traveling in large icebergs that floated long distances from their point of origin before melting. Geologist Gerard ?Bond noticed that some of the sediment grains were stained with iron oxide, evidence that they originated in locales where glaciers had overrun outcrops of red sandstone. Bond’s detailed analysis of deep-water sediment cores showed changes in the mix of sediment sources over time: the proportion of these redstained grains fluctuated back and forth from lows of 5 percent to highs of about 17 percent, and these fluctuations occurred in a nearly regular 1,500-year cycle.

【官方指南】GRE OG阅读题大全之北大西洋的沉积物图1

Bond hypothesized that the alternating cycles might be evidence of changes in ocean-water circulation and therefore in Earth’s climate. He knew that the sources of the red-stained grains were generally closer to the North Pole than were the places yielding a high proportion of “clean” grains. At certain times, apparently, more icebergs from the Arctic Ocean in the far north were traveling south well into the North Atlantic before melting and shedding their sediment.

Ocean waters are constantly moving, and water temperature is both a cause and an effect of this movement. As water cools, it becomes denser and sinks to the ocean’s bottom. During some periods, the bottom layer of the world’s oceans comes from cold, dense water sinking in the far North Atlantic. This causes the warm surface waters of the Gulf Stream to be pulled northward. Bond realized that during such periods, the influx of these warm surface waters into northern regions could cause a large proportion of the icebergs that bear red grains to melt before traveling very far into the North Atlantic. But sometimes the ocean’s dynamic changes, and waters from the Gulf Stream do not travel northward in this way. During these periods, surface waters in the North Atlantic would generally be colder, permitting icebergs bearing red-stained grains to travel farther south in the North Atlantic before melting and depositing their sediment.

The onset of the so-called Little Ice Age (1300-1860) , which followed the Medieval Warm Period of the eighth through tenth centuries, may represent the most recent time that the ocean’s dynamic changed in this way. If ongoing climate-history studies support Bond’s hypothesis of 1,500-year cycles, scientists may establish a major natural rhythm in Earth’s temperatures that could then be extrapolated into the future. Because the midpoint of the Medieval Warm Period was about A.D. 850, an extension of Bond’s cycles would place the midpoint of the next warm interval in the twenty-fourth century.

12. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the rock fragments contained in the sediments studied by Bond?

A. The majority of them are composed of red sandstone.

B. They must have reached their present location over 1,500 years ago.

C. They were carried by icebergs to their present location.

D. Most of them were carried to their present location during a warm period in Earth’s climatic history.

E. They are unlikely to have been carried to their present location during the Little Ice Age.

13. In the final paragraph of the passage (lines 47-59), the author is concerned primarily with

A. answering a question about Earth’s climatic history

B. pointing out a potential flaw in Bond’s hypothesis

C. suggesting a new focus for the study of ocean sediments

D. tracing the general history of Earth’s climate

E. discussing possible implications of Bond’s hypothesis

14. According to the passage, Bond hypothesized that which of the following circumstances would allow red-stained sediment grains to reach more southerly latitudes?

A. Warm waters being pulled northward from the Gulf Stream

B. Climatic conditions causing icebergs to melt relatively quickly

C. Icebergs containing a higher proportion of iron oxide than usual

D. The formation of more icebergs than usual in the far north

E. The presence of cold surface waters in the North Atlantic

15. It can be inferred from the passage that in sediment cores from the North Atlantic’s deep waters, the portions that correspond to the Little Ice Age

A. differ very little in composition from the portions that correspond to the MedievalWarm Period

B. fluctuate significantly in composition between the portions corresponding to the 1300s and the portions corresponding to the 1700s

would be likely to contain a proportion of red-stained grains closer to 17 percent

than to 5 percent

D. show a much higher proportion of red-stained grains in cores extracted from the far north of the North Atlantic than in cores extracted from further south E. were formed in part as a result of Gulf Stream waters having been pulled northward

As an example of the devastation wrought on music publishers by the photocopier, one executive noted that for a recent choral festival with 1,200 singers, the festival’s organizing committee purchased only 12 copies of the music published by her company that was performed as part of the festival.

20. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the support the example lends to the executive’s contention that music publishers have been devastated by the photocopier?

A. Only a third of the 1,200 singers were involved in performing the music published by the executive’s company.

B. Half of the singers at the festival had already heard the music they were to perform before they began to practice for the festival.

C. Because of shortages in funding, the organizing committee of the choral festival required singers to purchase their own copies of the music performed at the festival.

D. Each copy of music that was performed at the festival was shared by two singers. E. As a result of publicity generated by its performance at the festival, the type of music performed at the festival became more widely known.


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A tall tree can transport a hundred gallons of water a day from its roots deep underground to the treetop. Is this movement propelled by pulling the water from above or pushing it from below? The pull mechanism has long been favored by most scientists. First proposed in the late 1800s, the theory relies on a property of water not commonly associated with fluids: its tensile strength. Instead of making a clean break, water evaporating from treetops tugs on the remaining water molecules, with that tug extending from molecule to molecule all the way down to the roots. The tree itself does not actually push or pull; all the energy for lifting water comes from the sun’s evaporative power.

【官方指南】GRE OG阅读题大全之北大西洋的沉积物图2

21. Which of the following statements is supported by the passage? A. The pull theory is not universally accepted by scientists.

B. The pull theory depends on one of water’s physical properties.

C. The pull theory originated earlier than did the push theory.

22. The passage provides information on each of the following EXCEPT

A. when the pull theory originated

B. the amount of water a tall tree can transport

C. the significance of water’s tensile strength in the pull theory

D. the role of the sun in the pull theory

E. the mechanism underlying water’s tensilestrength

While the influence of British magazines in shaping public opinion predates the nineteenth century, it was during the 1800s that mass distribution became possible and an explosion in periodical readership occurred, vastly increasing magazines’ opinion-shaping powers. The role of magazines as arbiters of nineteenth-century taste is seen in their depictions of the London theater. The magazines accorded some legitimacy to East End working-class theaters that mirrored the format of the fashionable West End theaters serving middle- and upper-class audiences. However, the magazines also depicted music halls—which competed for patronage with all theaters—as places where crass entertainment corrupted spectators’ taste and morals. Finally, they suggested that popular demand for substandard fare created a market unfriendly to higher expressions of dramatic art.

23. The author of the passage attributes the influence of British periodicals in

shaping public opinion in the nineteenth century in part to

A. a growing public interest in reading opinion pieces

B. an increase in the relative number of readers from the middle and upper classes

C. changes in the way in which magazines were distributed

D. magazines’ increased coverage of theater and popular entertainment

E. changes in magazine format that attracted a wider readership

24. The author of the passage mentions East End working-class theaters primarily in order to

A. illustrate a point about the ability of magazines to sway public opinion

B. contrast the kinds of entertainment presented in East End andWest End theaters

C. make a point about how spectators’ tastes influenced the offerings at different kinds of theaters

D. explain how magazines chose which kinds of entertainment to cover

E. identify factors that helped make certain theaters fashionable

25. In the context in which it appears, “accorded” ( line 9) ?most nearly means

A. reconciled

B. revealed

granted

D. verified

E. maintained

PRACTICE BOOK2

Historian F. W. Maitland observed that legal documents are the best—indeed, often the only—available evidence about the economic and social history of a given period. Why, then, has it taken so long for historians to focus systematically on the civil (noncriminal) law of early modern (sixteenth- to eighteenth-century) England? Maitland offered one reason: the subject requires researchers to “master an extremely formal system of pleading and procedure.” Yet the complexities that confront those who would study such materials are not wholly different from those recently surmounted by historians of criminal law in England during the same period. Another possible explanation for historians’ neglect of the subject is their widespread assumption that most people in early modern England had little contact with civil law. If that were so, the history of legal matters would be of little relevance to general historical scholarship. But recent research suggests that civil litigation during the period involved artisans, merchants, professionals, shopkeepers, and farmers, and not merely a narrow, propertied, male elite. Moreover, the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries saw an extraordinary explosion in civil litigation by both women and men, making this the most litigious era in English history on a per capita basis.


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9. The passage suggests that the history of criminal law in early modern England differs from the history of civil law during that same period in that the history of criminal law

A. is of more intellectual interest to historians and their readers

B. has been studied more thoroughly by historians

C. is more relevant to general social history

D. involves the study of a larger proportion of the population

E. does not require the mastery of an extremely formal system of procedures

10. The author of the passage mentions the occupations of those involved in civil litigation in early modern England most likely in order to

A. suggest that most historians’ assumptions about the participants in the civil legal system during that period are probably correct

B. support the theory that more people participated in the civil legal system than the criminal legal system in England during that period

C. counter the claim that legal issues reveal more about a country’s ordinary citizens than about its elite

D. illustrate the wide range of people who used the civil legal system in England during that period

E. suggest that recent data on people who participated in early modern England’s legal system may not be correct

11. The author of the passage suggests which of the following about the “widespread assumption” (line 15) ?

A. Because it is true, the history of civil law is of as much interest to historians focusing on general social history as to those specializing in legal history.

B. Because it is inaccurate, the history of civil law in early modern England should enrich the general historical scholarship of that period.

C. It is based on inaccurate data about the propertied male elite of early modern England.

D. It does not provide a plausible explanation for historians’ failure to study the civil law of early modern England.

E. It is based on an analogy with criminal law in early modern England.

Geese can often be seen grazing in coastal salt marshes. Unfortunately, their intense grazing removes the grassy covering, exposing marsh sediment; this increases evaporation, which in turn increases salt concentration in marsh sediments. Because of this increased concentration, regrowth of plants is minimal, leading to increased erosion, which leads to a decrease in the fertile topsoil, leading to even less regrowth. In time, the salt marsh becomes a mudflat. This process challenges one of the most widely held beliefs about the dynamics of saltmarsh ecosystems: supposedly, consumers such as geese do not play a large role in controlling the productivity of marsh systems. Rather, the standard view claims, marshes are controlled by bottom-up factors, such as nutrients and physical factors.

12. The author discusses “the standard view” (line 14 ) most likely in order to identify a view that

A. explains the occurrence of the chain of events described in the passage

B. provides a summary of the chain of events described in the passage

C. is called into question by the chain of events described in the passage

D. advocates reassessment of the widely held belief described in the passage E. is undermined by the widely held belief described in the passage

13. According to the passage, which of the following is a widely held belief about geese?

A. They are not often seen grazing in coastal salt marshes.

B. They are not the primary consumers in salt-marsh ecosystems.

They play only a minor role in the productivity of salt-marsh ecosystems.

D. They are the primary determinants of which resources will thrive in coastal salt marshes.

E. They control the productivity of salt-marsh ecosystems through a bottom-up process.

Last year, Mayor Stephens established a special law-enforcement task force with the avowed mission of eradicating corruption in city government. The mayor’s handpicked task force has now begun prosecuting a dozen city officials. Since all of these officials were appointed by Mayor Bixby, Mayor Stephens’ predecessor and longtime political foe, it is clear that those being prosecuted have been targeted because of their political affiliations.

14. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the editorial’s argument?

A. Complaints of official corruption in city government have decreased since the anticorruption task force began operating.

B. Former mayor Bixby did not publicly oppose Mayor Stephens’ establishment of the anticorruption task force.

C. Almost all of the officials who have served in city government for any length of time are appointees of Mayor Bixby.

D. All of the members of the anticorruption task force had other jobs in city government before the task force was formed.

E. During the last mayoral election campaign, then–Mayor Bixby hotly disputed the current mayor’s claim that there was widespread corruption in city government.

The decrease in responsiveness that follows continuous stimulation (adaptation) ?is common to all sensory systems, including olfaction. With continued exposure to chronically present ambient odors, individuals’ perception of odor intensity is greatly reduced. Moreover, these perceptual changes can be profound and durable. It is commonly reported that following extended absences from the odorous environment, reexposure may still fail to elicit perception at the original intensity. Most research on olfactory adaptation examines relatively transient changes in stimulus detection or perceived intensity—rarely exceeding several hours and often less—but because olfactory adaptation can be produced with relatively short exposures, these durations are sufficient for investigating many parameters of the phenomenon. However, exposures to odors in natural environments often occur over far longer periods, and the resulting adaptations may differ qualitatively from short-term olfactory adaptation. For example, studies show that even brief periods of odorant stimulation produce transient reductions in receptors in the olfactory epithelium, a process termed “receptor fatigue.” Prolonged odor stimulation, however, could produce more long-lasting reductions in response, possibly involving structures higher in the central nervous system pathway.

20. According to the passage, the phenomenon of olfactory adaptation may cause individuals who are reexposed to an odorous environment after an extended absence to

A. experience a heightened perception of the odor

B. perceive the odor as being less intense than it was upon first exposure

C. return to their original level of perception of the odor

D. exhibit a decreased tolerance for the odorous environment

E. experience the phenomenon of adaptation in other sensory systems

21. The passage asserts which of the following about the exposures involved in the “research on olfactory adaptation”(line 11 ) ?

A. The exposures are of long enough duration for researchers to investigate many aspects of olfactory adaptation.

B. The exposures have rarely consisted of reexposures following extended absences from the odorous environment.

C. The exposures are intended to reproduce the relatively transient olfactory changes typical of exposures to odors in natural environments.

D. Those exposures of relatively short duration are often insufficient to produce the phenomenon of receptor fatigue in study subjects.

E. Those exposures lasting several hours produce reductions in receptors in the olfactory epithelium that are similar to the reductions caused by prolonged odor stimulation.

22. The author of the passage discusses “receptor fatigue”(line 24 ) primarily in order to

A. explain the physiological process through which long-lasting reductions in response are thought to be produced

B. provide an example of a process that subjects would probably not experience during a prolonged period of odorant stimulation

C. help illustrate how the information gathered from most olfactory research may not be sufficient to describe the effects of extended exposures to odors

D. show how studies of short-term olfactory adaptation have only accounted for the reductions in response that follow relatively brief absences from an odorous environment

E. qualify a statement about the severity and duration of the perceptual changes caused by exposure to chronically present ambient odors


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Among academics involved in the study of Northern Renaissance prints (reproducible graphic artworks), an orthodox position can be said to have emerged. This position regards Renaissance prints as passive representations of their time—documents that reliably record contemporary events, opinions, and beliefs—and therefore as an important means of accessing the popular contemporary consciousness. In contrast, pioneering studies such as those by Scribner and Moxey take a strikingly different approach, according to which Northern Renaissance prints were purposeful, active, and important shaping forces in the communities that produced them. Scribner, for example, contends that religious and political prints of the German Reformation (ca.1517–1555) functioned as popular propaganda: tools in a vigorous campaign aimed at altering people’s behavior, attitudes, and beliefs.

23. The passage suggests that an adherent to the “orthodox position”(line 3) would agree with which of the following statements?

A. Northern Renaissance prints should be regarded as passive representations of their time.

B. Northern Renaissance prints were part of a campaign aimed at altering contemporary thinking.

C. Northern Renaissance prints provide reliable records of contemporary events, opinions, and beliefs.

24. Replacement of the word “passive”(line 5) which of the following words results in the least change in meaning for the passage?

A. disinterested

B. submissive

C. flaccid

D. supine

E. unreceptive

Recently an unusually high number of dolphins have been found dead of infectious diseases, and most of these had abnormally high tissue concentrations of certain compounds that, even in low concentrations, reduce dolphins’ resistance to infection. The only source of these compounds in the dolphins’ environment is boat paint. Therefore, since dolphins rid their bodies of the compounds rapidly once exposure ceases, their mortality rate should decline rapidly if such boat paints are banned.

25. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The levels of the compounds typically used in boat paints today are lower than they were in boat paints manufactured a decade ago.

B. In high concentrations, the compounds are toxic to many types of marine animals.

C. The compounds break down into harmless substances after a few months of exposure to water or air.

D. High tissue levels of the compounds have recently been found in some marine animals, but there is no record of any of those animals dying in unusually large numbers recently.

E. The compounds do not leach out of the boat paint if the paint is applied exactly in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions.

The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640–1689) changed markedly during the 1680s, as she turned from writing plays to writing prose narratives. According to literary critic Rachel Carnell, most scholars view this change as primarily motivated by financial considerations: earning a living by writing for the theatre became more difficult in the 1680s, so Behn tried various other types of prose genres in the hope of finding another lucrative medium. In fact, a long epistolary scandal novel that she wrote in the mid-1680s sold quite well. Yet, as Carnell notes, Behn did not repeat this approach in her other prose works; instead, she turned to writing shorter, more serious novels, even though only about half of these were published during her lifetime. Carnell argues that Behn, whose stage productions are primarily comedies, may have turned to an emerging literary form, the novel, in a conscious attempt to criticize, and subvert for her own ends, the conventions and ideology of a well-established form of her day, the dramatic tragedy.

Carnell acknowledges that Behn admired the skill of such contemporary writers of dramatic tragedy as John Dryden, and that Behn’s own comic stage productions displayed the same partisanship for the reigning Stuart monarchy that characterized most of the politically oriented dramatic tragedies of her day. However, Carnell argues that Behn took issue with the way in which these writers and plays defined the nature of tragedy. As prescribed by Dryden, tragedy was supposed to concern a heroic man who is a public figure and who undergoes a fall that evokes pity from the audience. Carnell points out that Behn’s tragic novels focus instead on the plight of little-known women and the private world of the household; even in her few novels featuring male protagonists, Behn insists on the importance of the crimes these otherwise heroic figures commit in the domestic sphere. Moreover, according to Carnell, Behn questioned the view promulgated by monarchist dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s: that the envisioned “public” political ideal—passive obedience to the nation’s king—ought to be mirrored in the private sphere, with family members wholly obedient to a male head of household. Carnell sees Behn’s novels not only as rejecting the model of patriarchal and hierarchical family order, but also as warning that insisting on such a parallel can result in real tragedy befalling the members of the domestic sphere. According to Carnell, Behn’s choice of literary form underscores the differences between her own approach to crafting a tragic story and that taken in the dramatic tragedies, with their artificial distinction between the public and private spheres. Behn’s novels engage in the political dialogue of her era by demonstrating that the good of the nation ultimately encompasses more than the good of the public figures who rule it.

9. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. tracing how Behn’s view of the nature of tragedy changed over time

B. explaining one author’s view of Behn’s contribution to the development of an emerging literary form

C. differentiating between the early and the late literary works of Behn

D. contrasting the approaches to tragedy taken by Behn and by Dryden

E. presenting one scholar’s explanation for a major development in Behn’s literary career

10. The passage suggests that Carnell sees Behn’s novels featuring male protagonists as differing from dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s featuring male protagonists in that the former

A. depict these characters as less than heroic in their public actions

B. emphasize the consequences of these characters’ actions in the private sphere

C. insist on a parallel between the public and the private spheres

D. are aimed at a predominantly female audience

E. depict family members who disobey these protagonists

11. The passage suggests that Carnell believes Behn held which of the following attitudes about the relationship between the private and public spheres?

A. The private sphere is more appropriate than is the public sphere as the setting for plays about political events.

B. The structure of the private sphere should not replicate the hierarchical order of the public sphere.

C. Actions in the private sphere are more fundamental to ensuring the good of the nation than are actions in the public sphere.

D. Crimes committed in the private sphere are likely to cause tragedy in the public sphere rather than vice versa.

E. The private sphere is the mirror in which issues affecting the public sphere can most clearly be seen.

12. It can be inferred from the passage that the “artificial distinction”(line 53-54) refers to the

A. practice utilized in dramatic tragedies of providing different structural models for the public and the private spheres

B. ideology of many dramatic tragedies that advocate passive obedience only in the private sphere and not in the public sphere

C. convention that drama ought to concern events in the public sphere and that novels ought to concern events in the private sphere

D. assumption made by the authors of conventional dramatic tragedies that legitimate tragic action occurs only in the public sphere

E. approach taken by the dramatic tragedies in depicting male and female characters differently, depending on whether their roles were public or private

Computers cannot accurately predict climate change unless the mathematical equations fed into them adequately capture the natural meteorological processes they are intended to simulate. Moreover, there are processes that influence climate, such as modifications in land use, that scientists do not know how to simulate. The failure to incorporate such a process into a computer climate model can lead the model astray because a small initial effect can initiate a feedback cycle: a perturbation in one variable modifies a second variable, which in turn amplifies the original disturbance. An increase in temperature, for example, can boost the moisture content of the atmosphere, which then causes further warming because water vapor is a greenhouse gas.


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13. The passage mentions which of the following as adversely affecting the accuracy of computer predictions of climate change?

A. Failure to allow for some of the processes that influence climate

B. Mathematical equations that do not accurately reflect natural phenomena C. An overestimate of the role of feedback cycles

14. In the context in which it appears, “amplifies” (line 11) most nearly means

A. exacerbates

B. explicates

C. expatiates

D. adds detail to

E. makes louder

Extensive housing construction is underway in Pataska Forest, the habitat of a large population of deer. Because deer feed at the edges of forests, these deer will be attracted to the spaces alongside the new roads being cut through Pataska Forest to serve the new residential areas. Consequently, once the housing is occupied, the annual number of the forest’s deer hit by cars will be much higher than before construction started.

15. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The number of deer hit by commercial vehicles will not increase significantly when the housing is occupied.

B. Deer will be as attracted to the forest edge around new houses as to the forest edge alongside roads.

C. In years past, the annual number of deer that have been hit by cars on existing roads through Pataska Forest has been very low.

D. The development will leave sufficient forest to sustain a significant population of deer.

E. No deer hunting will be allowed in Pataska Forest when the housing is occupied.

While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica, where it originated, its adoption in Europe was initially slow. There is a common belief that Europeans needed to “transform” chocolate to make it appetizing. However, while Spaniards did put sugar, which was unknown to indigenous Americans, into chocolate beverages, this additive was not completely innovative. Mesoamericans were already sweetening chocolate with honey, and the step from honey to sugar— increasingly more available than honey because of expanding sugar plantations in the Americas—is a small one. Likewise, although Spaniards adjusted Mesoamerican recipes by using European spices, the spices chosen suggest an attempt to replicate harder-to-find native flowers. There is no indication the Spaniards deliberately tried to change the original flavor of chocolate.

20. The author of the passage refers to the use of honey primarily to

A. identify the origins of an additive previously untried by Europeans

B. present an example of a product that was unknown to Europeans

C. correct the misapprehension that Mesoamericans used a sweetener that was not available in Europe

D. provide an example of an ingredient that was in the process of being displaced by a substitute

E. explain why the Spanish use of sugar in chocolate was not a sign of a need to transform chocolate

21. Which sentence presents a misconception that the passage challenges?

A. The second ( “There is . . . . appetizing”)

B. The third ( “However . . . . innovative”)

C. The fourth ( “Mesoamericans . . . . one”)

D. The fifth ( “Likewise . . . . flowers”)

E. The sixth ( “There is . . . . chocolate”)

Biologists generally agree that birds and dinosaurs are somehow related to one another. The agreement ends there. Hypotheses regarding dinosaurian and avian evolution are unusually diverse—and often at odds with one another. Confusion consequently reigns over a broad spectrum of unanswered questions dealing with avian origins and the biology of dinosaurs and early birds. This confusion has been exacerbated by a paucity of serious attempts to synthesize and evaluate available data on the details of avian and dinosaurian evolution. Too often, the job of summarizing current knowledge of these subjects has fallen to well-meaning but na?ve lay authors or reporters. Consequently, both the public and the scientific community have often been misled by widespread dissemination of sensational but weakly founded hypotheses.

22. The passage suggests that which of the following could help remedy the problem described in the final sentence(lines 14-17 )

A. An article written by a biologist for the general public summarizing current theories about avian and dinosaurian evolution

B. Aclose examination of available data on avian and dinosaurian evolution C. A new hypothesis regarding the connection between avian and dinosaurian evolution

23. In the context in which it appears, “sensational”(line 16) most nearly means

A. dramatic

B. false

C. excellent

D. eminent

E. horrifying

A portrait type that appeared with relentless frequency in eighteenth-century England is the familiar image of a gentleman poised with one hand inside his partially unbuttoned waistcoat. Standard interpretations of this portrait posture offer observations of correspondence—demonstrating either that it mirrors actual social behavior or that it borrows from classical statuary. Such explanations, however, illuminate neither the source of this curious convention nor the reason for its popularity. It is true that in real life the “hand-in” was a common stance for elite men. Still, there were other ways of comporting the body that did not become winning portrait formulas. And even if the “hand-in” portrait does resemble certain classical statues, what accounts for the adoption of this particular pose?

24. In the context of the passage as a whole, the primary function of the sentence in lines 10-12(“It is …men”) is to

A. emphasize the influence of a particular social class on the conventions of eighteenth-century English portraiture

B. account for the origin of a particular type of behavior frequently represented in eighteenth-century English portraiture

C. acknowledge a historical basis for two competing hypotheses about a particular portrait type

D. question the relevance of certain evidence frequently cited in support of an explanation for a particular portrait type

E. concede that one explanation for the prevalence of a particular portrait type has a basis in fact

25. Which of the following might provide an explanation for the popularity of hand-in portraits that would satisfy the author of the passage?

A. An eighteenth-century English etiquette manual discussing the social implications of the “hand-in” stance

B. A comprehensive catalogue of eighteenth-century English portraits that showed what proportion of portraits depicted gentlemen in the “hand-in” stance

C. A passage from an eighteenth-century English novel in which a gentleman considers what stance to adopt when his portrait is painted

【高分秘籍】烤鸭必知的雅思听力3大应试技巧

【高分秘籍】烤鸭必知的雅思听力3大应试技巧图1
1.做好准备
在正式播放听力录音前,同学们务必要先了解答题要求,看清例题,明确题型,以提升答题的准确性。听力录音只播放一遍,因此同学们在备考的过程中注意养成这个习惯,以便在实际的考试中发挥自如。
2.协调配合
听取录音的时候,同学们一定不能仅仅用耳朵听,这是最错误的应对方式。正确的做法应该要多个感官做协调配合,让听、读、写三方面齐头并进。大家在读题的过程中,将关键词标记出来,在听的过程中,用笔迅速记录关键信息。为了不让记笔记耽误了录音的听取,同学们一定要学会速记,比如用特殊符号来做积累。记录形式不重要,关键是要自己能看懂就好。
3.认真检查
在雅思听力考试中,最后10分钟是填写答题卡的时间。TPO现在建议大家在填写好答案之后,一定要做检查。因为很多同学为了赶时间,在填写答案的过程中很有可能忽略了名词的单复数、拼写和语法问题。因此填好答案后,再次认真检查,将进一步提升同学们答题的准确性,从而提升考试得分。
希望以上三大应试技巧能给大家的备考带来一定的帮助作用。当然,想要提高听力考试分数,离不开有效地练习。希望同学们都能根据自身的实际情况,制定合理的复习计划。最后,预祝大家都能在考试中取得更高的分数,成功赴海外求学!更多更新雅思学习资料及考试资讯,请继续关注雅思频道。
雅思热点 雅思听力 雅思阅读 雅思写作 雅思口语 高分经验
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北美09.05.30托福写作范文

  Do you agree or disagree with the

  following statement? Younger school children (ages five to ten)

  should be required to study art and music in addition to math,

  science, history and language.

  Math, science, history, and language are all

  extremely important subjects in the education of children. However,

  many parents and schools neglect educating children about art and

  music because they believe that learning about art and music will

  not contribute to children’s future career. However, I firmly

  believe that artistic and musical education is vital for the

  development of children because it offers a great deal of

  advantages.

  First, art and music make children more

  thoughtful. Art and music cross boundaries between different

  countries and regions, from villages to urban areas, from Africa to

  Asia, and from Tibet to New York City, meaning that they include

  many different cultures and ways of thinking. By studying art and

  music, children are exposed to different points of view and

  civilizations. This can lead them to interact with the real world

  in a way that is wonderful and sophisticated, and that is

  beneficial for their mental development.

  Moreover, art and music are outlets for children

  to release their emotions. When one is happy, angry, sad, or

  excited, art and music serve as excellent mediums for releasing

  this feeling. When I am depressed, my favorite activity is painting

  while listening to my favorite music, which is an important gateway

  to relieving my sadness. If I had not studied art and music, I

  would not understand the benefits of using art and music in this

  way

  Finally, learning about art and music provides a

  superb way to relax. Many courses that children take, such as math,

  science, history, and language, may be boring to them. If they can

  take art and music courses, children will have opportunities to

  relax, as art and music have a magical power to relieve the

  pressure of studying. They can also relax after a long day at

  school by listening to music and admiring some paintings, which may

  also help them keep fit.

  Overall, art and music are very

  important and have a magical power that contributes to children’s

  mental health. Therefore, I subscribe to the belief that children

  should be required to study art and music in addition to math,

  science, history, and language

【改错精选120练】GMAT官方讲解SC难点实例分析(九十二练)

GMAT句子改错题(sentence
correction),是整个GMAT考试中对考生英语语法能力考查要求最高的题型,也往往是中国学生最为头疼的一类题目。没有扎实的语法基础和一定的逻辑分析能力,想要做好句子改错题难度极高。如何提升GMAT句子改错题的解题能力?下面小编就为大家整理了一些经典例题,结合实例分析为大家讲解GMAT句子改错题的解题思路和方法技巧。

【改错精选120练】GMAT官方讲解SC难点实例分析(九十二练)图1

实例题目:

Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work
both rooted
in the stride-piano tradition of Willie (The Lion) Smith and

Duke Ellington, yet in many ways he stood apart from the mainstream jazz
repertory.

(A) Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of
work both rooted

(B) Thelonious Monk, the jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work
that was rooted both

(C) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk, who produced a body of work
rooted

(D) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work that
was rooted

(E) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work rooted
both

【改错精选120练】GMAT官方讲解SC难点实例分析(九十二练)图2

选项分析:

(A)Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of
work both rooted

【错误】 平行结构:“rooted in……”和“Duke Ellington”两者语法功能不一致,因此无法用“both X and
Y”的结构平行。

(B)Thelonious Monk, the jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work
that was rooted both

【错误】 平行结构:“in the stride-piano tradition of……”和“Duke
Ellington”语法功能不一致,因此无法用“both X and Y”的结构平行。

(C)Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk, who produced a body of work
rooted

【错误】 句子结构:“Thelonious
Monk”本应做句子的主语,但本选项中它在主句中没有谓语动词,因为“produced”变成了“who”引导的从句的谓语动词。

(D)Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work that was
rooted

【正确】 本选项仅仅是“Willie (The Lion) Smith”和“Duke Ellington”用“and”平行在一起,没有使用“both X
and Y”的平行结构。

【大意】 爵士钢琴家和作曲家Thelonious Monk创作了一个扎根于Willie (The Lion) Smith和Duke
Ellington大幅掠过钢琴弹法的作品体系,但很多方面他又从主流的爵士乐曲中脱颖而出。

(E)Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work rooted
both

【错误】 平行结构:见(B)。

解题思路:

(C)中句子结构有问题;

(A)、(B)、(E)没有正确使用“both X and Y”的平行结构,立即排除;

因此选择(D)。

10周拿下雅思8分,吃透雅思真题就够了

首先自报家门了。备考6周,一战成绩:雅思阅读:8.5 雅思听力:8 雅思写作:6.0 雅思口语:6.5
Overall:7.5一个月后二战,成绩:雅思阅读:9 雅思听力:8.5 雅思写作:7 雅思口语:7.5 Overall:8
下面就给大家讲一下我的备考复习经验分享。其实没有太多的技巧分享,我就把自己整个雅思备考经验回忆一遍。

10周拿下雅思8分,吃透雅思真题就够了图1

总的来说,雅思阅读和雅思听力都提高了0.5,雅思写作雅思口语都提高了1分。两次都是在上海,华东师范大学考的。决定考雅思之后,我就立马在某宝买了一套剑桥4-12。挑里面最新的一套做了一遍。当然,只做了雅思阅读和雅思听力。说实话,当时的打击还是挺大的。

雅思阅读一堆不认识的单词,文章枯燥又无趣。雅思听力居然只能听一遍,还那么长,简直是反人类!不过,这一套题做下来,让我对雅思的画风有了整体的感知,比如它考察的侧重点,出题人的思路,选材的风格等等——这对我日后的备考有着很大的帮助,它让我决定,接下来的所有备考策略,都以真题为核心,反复推敲,反复琢磨,把真题吃透。

雅思阅读经验分享

对于包括我自己在内的绝大多数中国考生来说,雅思阅读是ROI(Return On Investment)最高的一门了,很容易在短期内提分。

我一般会先把一套完整的雅思阅读题做完,然后对答案,标出每一题的对错,并把所有题目分为三种类型:答对了,并且已经完全理解,没有任何问题的——过;答对了,但是对题目仍有些迷迷糊糊,或者是凭借所谓的“应试技巧”蒙对的——剖析疑惑点、原文和题目到底讲了什么,考点是什么。答错了——同上,剖析正确答案,并将此题重点标记下来。

这一步完成之后,我会开始“肢解”每一篇文章和每一个选项。包括但不限于词汇、逻辑、时态、长难句分析、考察点,等等。总而言之就是360度无死角地审视这篇真题,直到自己能够完全驾驭它。最后,我会在几天后再次把这套题重新做一遍。这次追求的,不仅仅是把题做对,更是要检验自己是否完全掌握了原文和选项里的全部内容。如果没有,再次重复上一步。

至于大家比较关心的词汇问题,嗯,这段时间我每天也会背雅思核心词汇的,但花费的时间并不多,每天最多20-30分钟。其实个人觉得,普通大学六级水平的词汇量,应付雅思已经够用了。

雅思听力经验分享

雅思听力最大的难点就是录音只放一遍,而我是第一次做真题的时候才知道,当时是崩溃的,觉得雅思听力几乎不可能攻克了。做了几套真题之后,发现其实雅思听力真的只是在考察实词和信息,而不是考察思维。不像中国的考试,有时候你好不容易听懂了,却要绕好几个弯去理解题目,有时候甚至要钻点牛角尖。

理解了这个套路之后,我就采用了最笨的备考方法——听写真题。这个方法是一位英专的朋友告诉我的。据说专四雅思听力里就有这样一道题,把每个句子重复播四遍,然后要求考生把句子完整地、一字不差地写出来。标点符号,单复数,时态,人称……一个都不能错。

这样做了一个礼拜之后我发现,自己的雅思听力真的提高了不少,尤其是一些弱读,连读,清读,省略等,而这些,也正是最限制我们理解原文意思的元素。同时,在听写的过程中,我会把考察点用彩色笔标注出来,去捉摸这些考点的规律,比如最常出现的考点就是时间、地点、目的等类似的实词。这样几套题下来,就发现雅思听力其实全是套路。

多嘴说一句,关于雅思听力,很多人都过于强调泛听,而忽略精听。就我自己而言,我认为泛听BBC,VOA,CNN这些材料,对我的雅思听力一点帮助都没有;而只有精听,死磕,一个字一个字地听写,才能在短期内提高(纯属个人经验哦)。

雅思口语经验分享

在备考之前,我就认清了一个残酷的现实:雅思口语要在短期内提高,几乎是不可能的。看完雅思的雅思口语题库之后我发现,雅思Part 2 主要以描述为主,Part
3
主要以表达观点为主。而想要在短期,别说把题库中的每一题准备一遍,就算是都过一遍也要花费很久的时间,而且ROI还有可能极低。于是,我就开始给所有的题目分类。Part
2 我分为了人物、物品、事件、场所和虚构,五大类.

每一类我都会根据自己的兴趣爱好,选定一个主题,然后进行深入地准备。比如,我那段时间很喜欢苏打绿,于是就是谷歌了他们的英文介绍。因为已经有背景知识了,所以背起来相对容易。背完之后,我会带着自己背的内容,反观每一个话题,如果这个话题能套用或勉强套用苏打绿的素材,直接Pass。

以此类推,我大概准备了10-15篇素材,全都与自己兴趣相关,比如陈奕迅的一场演唱会、周杰伦的一首歌、皇家马德里的一场球赛、印象深刻的一部电影等等。由于每个素材的中文背景我都烂熟于心,所以,哪怕题目再怎么变,我都能用准备好的素材,加上一点点转折过渡,把素材套上去。

有了这几篇,最后再捋一遍题库的时候,发现基本上都能套用了。雅思口语部分的准备就到此结束,不值得我再去多花哪怕一分钟的时间了。

雅思写作经验分享

雅思写作是我最没有发言权的一项了,四科里分数最低,就简单说一下吧。第一次考,由于对自己过于自信,作文竟然没有写完。第二次考试的时候稍微注意了一下,拿到试卷就奋笔疾书,最后也是压线才完成的。所以在这里要提醒第一次考试的宝宝们:时间真的很紧,时间真的很紧,时间真的很紧!

最后总结一下吧,其实雅思考试没那么难也没那么简单。不是什么雅思专业老师,之所以能有这么好的分数,除了必要的雅思考试技巧,实力更加关键,我原本英语基础就不差,制定好了备考雅思的计划后就遵照执行,10周的时间妥妥的够了。当然我的备考经验并不适用于所有的考鸭,大家各取所需吧。