【必备词汇】托福写作常用十大经典连词汇总

托福阅读托福写作中,连词对于理解和表达上下文的意思,是很重要的。小编收集出来了十大经典连词,以及他们的替换用法,这样大家写作和阅读的时候,就可以有更多选择啦!

【必备词汇】托福写作常用十大经典连词汇总图1

十大关系代词替换

一. And 并列关系 (and)

in addition ; and ; similarly ; likewise ; as well as ; besides ; furthermore
; also ; moreover ; too; not only … but ; even ; besides this/that

二.Sequence 顺序 (then)

出现的时候表示列举

first; initially ; second etc. ; to begin with ; then ; next ; earlier/later
; following this/that ; afterwards

三. Consequence 结果 (so)

前面是后面的结果 ; 也就是这些词后面就开始给出结论了。

as a result; thus ; so ; therefore ; consequently ; it follows that ; thereby
; eventually ; in that case ; admittedly

四.Contrast转折 (but )

表对前面论述的转折 ; 一般后面才是作者观点

however; on the other hand ; despite ; in spite of ;

though ; although ; but ; on the contrary

otherwise; yet ; instead of ; rather ; whereas ; nonetheless ;
in contrast

【必备词汇】托福写作常用十大经典连词汇总图2

五.Certainty 确定 (of course)

强烈的确定 ; 后面是作者的坚定论点

obviously; certainly ; plainly ; of course ; undoubtedly

六.Condition 条件/ 因为 (if )

后面跟随着某种情况发生的前提或者是条件。

if ; unless ; whether ; provided that ; Given that ; for ; so that ;
whether ; depending on

七.Time 时间 (when )

before ; since ; as ; until ; meanwhile ; at the moment ; when ; whenever ;
as soon as ; just as

八.Summary 总结 (in a word)

作者的最后总结

in conclusion ; in summary ; lastly ; finally ; to sum up ; to conclude ;
to recapitulate 重述 ; in short ; in a word

九.Example举例 (for example)

for example ; for instance ; just as ; in particular ; such as ; namely
也就是

十.Reason原因 ( because)

since ; as ; so ; because (of) ; due to ; owing to ; the reason why ;
in other words ; leads to ; cause

【托福阅读资料】独家深度解析TPO32——阅读Question 14

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This questions is worth 2 points. The ecology of a site is changed through its colonization by new plants that arrive and grow there.

A. The species that first colonize a disturbed site are typically ones that produce a large number of efficiently dispersed seeds. D. Producing seeds that germinate at various times over long periods allows some plants to colonize sites that only occasionally present the right conditions for growth.
B. Plants that cannot successfully compete with other species can invade and colonize a site only if it is fertile and moist, such as a plowed field. E. Large, long-lived seeds tend to result in large seed banks with short germination periods requiring favorable environmental conditions for development.
C. Pioneer species arrive at a site first but have lower survival rates than do species that arrive later. F. The successive appearance and disappearance of species on a site is a result of variation in species’ rates of invasion, growth, and survival.

Answer: ADF

A. The species that first colonize a disturbed site are typically ones that produce a large number of efficiently dispersed seeds.
翻译: 第一批将受干扰土地殖民的是那
些生产出大量有效传播的种子
的物种。
对应文章第二段的第二句: 先锋物种 — 即只是出现在殖民初期阶段的物种 — 趋向于快速入侵因为他们生产出大量有繁殖力的芽(种子、孢子等其他),也因为它们有一种有效的传播途径(通常是风)。所以该选项正确。
D. Producing seeds that germinate at various times over long periods allows some plants to colonize sites that only occasionally present the right conditions for growth.
翻译: 产生出发芽期不同的种子就允许
一些植物来殖民那些偶尔具有满
足生长条件的地方。
对应文章的第四段第一、二句:在殖民物种中发展出的一中适应性是发芽时间的高度变化。一个特定物种的种子展现出不同的发芽时间,增加了至少有一些种子在环境条件允许的情况下发芽的可能性。所以该选项正确。
B. Plants that cannot successfully compete with other species can invade and colonize a site only if it is fertile and moist, such as a plowed field.
翻译:
只有当该地区土壤肥沃,潮湿的时候,比如说一块犁田,不能成功地与其他种群竞争的植物可以入侵并且殖民该地区。
第一段的最后两句提到了相关的概念, 但文章并没有提到cannot successfully compete with other species以及only if的相关信息。所以该选项错误。
E. Large, long-lived seeds tend to result in large seed banks with short germination periods requiring favorable environmental conditions for development.
翻译:
体积较大的长生种子趋向于形成大型种子库,在有利于生长的环境下有较短的发芽周期。
第三段后半段描述长生种子的特种只是说到了数量多,并没有提到发芽周期短这一特征,所以该选项错误。
C. Pioneer species arrive at a site first but have lower survival rates than do species that arrive later.
翻译:
首批到达该地区的先锋种群比起后到的种群存活率更低。
第五段最后句提到了后殖民的种群与第一批殖民种群拥有相似的存活率。C选项违背原文的意思,所以错误。
F. The successive appearance and disappearance of species on a site is a result of variation in species’ rates of invasion, growth, and survival.
翻译:
一个区域的物种的连续出现和消失是物种入侵速度, 生长速度以及存活率都不同的结果。
对应文章第5段第一、二句:物种在植物群落中的自然衍替,物种出现和消失的短暂次序都取决在该物种的生命周期的不同阶段所发生的事件。入侵和生长速度的不同和变化在决定自然衍替的样式中扮演着重要的角色。所以该选项正确。

Comments:

A选项:对应第2段的核心意思,第2句话;

B选项:原文中没有明确说明的信息;

C选项:违背原文意思,第三段最后一句;

D选项:对应第4段的核心意思;

E选项:requiring favorable environmental conditions for development是原文中没有明确说明的信息;

F选项:对应第5段的核心意思新物种的殖民改变了该地区的生态。

【每日一练】SAT语法句子改进题(35)

距离11月8日的SAT考试越来越近啦,要参加此次考试的童鞋一定要认真备考哦!早日实现自己的留学梦。下面是我们为大家带来十月份的SAT每日一题系列项目,借此帮助各位考生更好地备考SAT考试,我们将在第一时间内提供题目的答案与解析。希望大家积极参加练习,努力提高自己SAT写作能力!来看看今天为大家带来的SAT句子改进题目!

Writing > Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

Their part of the reconstruction process that followed the Second World War, the nations of Western Europe took steps toward achieving greater political and economic integration.

(A) Their

(B) The

(C) It was

(D) As

(E) On

答案:D

解析:Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by using the preposition “As” to indicate what the “steps toward … integration” were a part of.

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【每日一练】SAT语法句子改进题(32)

距离11月8日的SAT考试还有不到二十天的时间,要参加此次考试的童鞋一定要认真备考哦!早日实现自己的留学梦。下面是我们为大家带来十月份的SAT每日一题系列项目,借此帮助各位考生更好地备考SAT考试,我们将在第一时间内提供题目的答案与解析。希望大家积极参加练习,努力提高自己SAT写作能力!来看看今天为大家带来的SAT句子改进题目。

Writing > Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

It is thought that a dog’s sense of smell is generally 10,000 to 100,000 times better than humans.

(A) humans

(B) humans’ are

(C) humans have

(D) a human’s

(E) a human has

答案:D

解析:Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by properly comparing “a dog’s sense of smell” to “a human’s” sense of smell.

托福机经2016.07.02写作

  WRITING SECTION

  Integrated writing

  task

  Topic:

  Whether the TV commercials about medicines is

  reasonable or not

  Sample answer

  Reading:

  They are harmful

  1. TV ads are not objective,

  for they often conceal the negative side effects, which even they

  have not realized yet.

  2. Once the medicine is

  advertised, the sales will surge, which will mislead the consumers

  to believe that such medicine is very effective, so they will not

  consult their doctors. This is very hazardous for their

  health.

  3. The regulations and

  controls that government imposed on medicine ads are insufficient,

  for the government does not censor those ads one by one, which give

  advertisers loopholes to exploit.

  Listening

  They play a positive role

  1. The consumers have their

  own objective views and judgments. They often do a lot of

  researches in the internet or consult doctors before they buy the

  products, which enable them to have a comprehensive and thorough

  understandings of the medicines.

  2. The big sales of the

  products will inform the consumers some really useful medicines,

  which they did not know before. For example, a medicine used for

  prohibiting the habit of smoking was introduced to the consumers by

  ads, and it is proved very effective.

  3. Though the censorship is

  not conducted by one ad by ad, the government will seriously fine

  the companies that violate the regulations, so the companies are

  less likely to do that.

  Independent writing task

  Essay question

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  Competition between friends usually negatively impacts friendships.

  Use specific details and examples to support your

  opinion.

  【话题提示】

  I think competition can help create and strengthen

  friendships.

  Supporting idea:

  1. When we were children,

  playing games and competing with each other was a main way we found

  friends.

  2. As children get older,

  friends still continue to compete and strengthen their bonds

  through competition.

  3. In professional athletics

  there are also a lot of friendships based on

  competition.

  Sample answer

  Supporting idea:

  When we were children, playing games and competing with

  each other was a main way we found friends. On the playground

  during recess or in the park after school, children constantly

  think up games where there is a winner and a loser. Whether it is

  seeing who can race around the park the fastest, or who can jump

  rope the most in one minute, competitions like these help children

  learn how to socialize and make friends. Yes, there is a winner and

  a loser, but every day children look forward to playing and

  competing with their friends.

【考前必备】托福阅读十大题型之词汇题——Cinema

托福阅读词汇题怎么做?接触过新托福考试的考生应该对新托福阅读中的一类题型深有体会,甚至有的考生对其深恶痛绝,这一类题就是阅读的词汇题,即选择4个选项中和原文某一词汇意义表达相同的选项,很多同学面对这样的题目都会束手无策。那么,下面我们就为大家带来一些这样的范例,帮助大家如何应对这样的题目。

【考前必备】托福阅读十大题型之词汇题——Cinema图1

托福阅读词汇题:Cinema

【Paragraph 6】With the advent of projection, the viewer’s relationship with
the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices
such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine
that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic
cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public—an experience
that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others. Atthe
same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule
peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of
6 or 9 feet. (Early Cinema)

The word “It” in the passage refers to

○The advent of projection

○The viewer’s relationship with the image

○A similar machine

○Celluloid

The word “expanded” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○was enlarged

○was improved

○was varied

○was rejected

托福阅读词汇题答案:2、1

【高分经验】备考三个月 托福听力满分经验谈

我前前后后考了两次托福,第二次的成绩105分,最关键的就是听力是满分。有点惊喜,也是非常感慨,真是有点备考的经验想写给大家了,希望能给正在备考的同学一点帮助吧。

【高分经验】备考三个月 托福听力满分经验谈图1

我的英语水平是一般般的,开始我看了点网上的攻略之类的,就想着从托福听力的TPO开始练习了。后来,有人建议我说还是从老托福开始吧。我比较了一下,觉得自己还是应从老托福开始练比较合适。老托福的听力材料,就那种1分多钟1篇的。这套音频的语速、内容都不算太难理解,而且有对应的文章可以看,听的时候发现自己哪里跟不上了可以马上停下来看文章。

等到老托福听力材料已经能听懂80%,就可以提高难度了。做事都要遵循一个循序渐进的原则,听力的提高也不例外。那时候,我开始练的是VOA。不过,直到考完托福,我坦白说,听VOA也是很吃力的。我当时是下载十篇几分钟一段的VOA
standard,放到MP3里面反复听。我采用的方法是“听说”——耳朵听到的英语嘴巴跟着说,哪怕没听懂也尽量模仿那种发音。因为有了大脑的这个反馈过程,这样做能让自己专注于所听的材料,走神现象有了很大的改善。

【高分经验】备考三个月 托福听力满分经验谈图2

总之,我觉得托福考试不仅仅是个考试,对于人的体力和耐力都是一个挑战。特别是考试当天,对于个人心理和临场的发挥也要和很好的应对,掌握好节奏是非常重要的。

【必备资料】新托福写作模板经典范例整理(二)

如果你能够恰当的使用托福写作模板写作文,不仅能够节省时间,也能迅速捋清思路,构架自己的托福作文结构。所以初入托福的备考学生不妨好好的看一下,我们为大家推荐的写作模板吧,说不定是会为大家带来不少帮助的哟!

【必备资料】新托福写作模板经典范例整理(二)图1

新托福写作模板经典范例2:

From my point of view,it is advisable to choose A rather than B。 My arguments for this point are listed as follows。

The main reason for my propensity for _______ is that ________。

There is another factor that deserves some words here。

In a word, _______。 While it is true that the argument, I disagree hold a little bit of water, I think________。

【官方指南】GRE OG阅读题大全之北大西洋的沉积物

Recent studies of sediment in the North Atlantic’s deep waters reveal possible cyclical patterns in the history of Earth’s climate. The rock fragments in these sediments are too large to have been transported there by ocean currents; they must have reached their present locations by traveling in large icebergs that floated long distances from their point of origin before melting. Geologist Gerard ?Bond noticed that some of the sediment grains were stained with iron oxide, evidence that they originated in locales where glaciers had overrun outcrops of red sandstone. Bond’s detailed analysis of deep-water sediment cores showed changes in the mix of sediment sources over time: the proportion of these redstained grains fluctuated back and forth from lows of 5 percent to highs of about 17 percent, and these fluctuations occurred in a nearly regular 1,500-year cycle.

【官方指南】GRE OG阅读题大全之北大西洋的沉积物图1

Bond hypothesized that the alternating cycles might be evidence of changes in ocean-water circulation and therefore in Earth’s climate. He knew that the sources of the red-stained grains were generally closer to the North Pole than were the places yielding a high proportion of “clean” grains. At certain times, apparently, more icebergs from the Arctic Ocean in the far north were traveling south well into the North Atlantic before melting and shedding their sediment.

Ocean waters are constantly moving, and water temperature is both a cause and an effect of this movement. As water cools, it becomes denser and sinks to the ocean’s bottom. During some periods, the bottom layer of the world’s oceans comes from cold, dense water sinking in the far North Atlantic. This causes the warm surface waters of the Gulf Stream to be pulled northward. Bond realized that during such periods, the influx of these warm surface waters into northern regions could cause a large proportion of the icebergs that bear red grains to melt before traveling very far into the North Atlantic. But sometimes the ocean’s dynamic changes, and waters from the Gulf Stream do not travel northward in this way. During these periods, surface waters in the North Atlantic would generally be colder, permitting icebergs bearing red-stained grains to travel farther south in the North Atlantic before melting and depositing their sediment.

The onset of the so-called Little Ice Age (1300-1860) , which followed the Medieval Warm Period of the eighth through tenth centuries, may represent the most recent time that the ocean’s dynamic changed in this way. If ongoing climate-history studies support Bond’s hypothesis of 1,500-year cycles, scientists may establish a major natural rhythm in Earth’s temperatures that could then be extrapolated into the future. Because the midpoint of the Medieval Warm Period was about A.D. 850, an extension of Bond’s cycles would place the midpoint of the next warm interval in the twenty-fourth century.

12. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the rock fragments contained in the sediments studied by Bond?

A. The majority of them are composed of red sandstone.

B. They must have reached their present location over 1,500 years ago.

C. They were carried by icebergs to their present location.

D. Most of them were carried to their present location during a warm period in Earth’s climatic history.

E. They are unlikely to have been carried to their present location during the Little Ice Age.

13. In the final paragraph of the passage (lines 47-59), the author is concerned primarily with

A. answering a question about Earth’s climatic history

B. pointing out a potential flaw in Bond’s hypothesis

C. suggesting a new focus for the study of ocean sediments

D. tracing the general history of Earth’s climate

E. discussing possible implications of Bond’s hypothesis

14. According to the passage, Bond hypothesized that which of the following circumstances would allow red-stained sediment grains to reach more southerly latitudes?

A. Warm waters being pulled northward from the Gulf Stream

B. Climatic conditions causing icebergs to melt relatively quickly

C. Icebergs containing a higher proportion of iron oxide than usual

D. The formation of more icebergs than usual in the far north

E. The presence of cold surface waters in the North Atlantic

15. It can be inferred from the passage that in sediment cores from the North Atlantic’s deep waters, the portions that correspond to the Little Ice Age

A. differ very little in composition from the portions that correspond to the MedievalWarm Period

B. fluctuate significantly in composition between the portions corresponding to the 1300s and the portions corresponding to the 1700s

would be likely to contain a proportion of red-stained grains closer to 17 percent

than to 5 percent

D. show a much higher proportion of red-stained grains in cores extracted from the far north of the North Atlantic than in cores extracted from further south E. were formed in part as a result of Gulf Stream waters having been pulled northward

As an example of the devastation wrought on music publishers by the photocopier, one executive noted that for a recent choral festival with 1,200 singers, the festival’s organizing committee purchased only 12 copies of the music published by her company that was performed as part of the festival.

20. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the support the example lends to the executive’s contention that music publishers have been devastated by the photocopier?

A. Only a third of the 1,200 singers were involved in performing the music published by the executive’s company.

B. Half of the singers at the festival had already heard the music they were to perform before they began to practice for the festival.

C. Because of shortages in funding, the organizing committee of the choral festival required singers to purchase their own copies of the music performed at the festival.

D. Each copy of music that was performed at the festival was shared by two singers. E. As a result of publicity generated by its performance at the festival, the type of music performed at the festival became more widely known.


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A tall tree can transport a hundred gallons of water a day from its roots deep underground to the treetop. Is this movement propelled by pulling the water from above or pushing it from below? The pull mechanism has long been favored by most scientists. First proposed in the late 1800s, the theory relies on a property of water not commonly associated with fluids: its tensile strength. Instead of making a clean break, water evaporating from treetops tugs on the remaining water molecules, with that tug extending from molecule to molecule all the way down to the roots. The tree itself does not actually push or pull; all the energy for lifting water comes from the sun’s evaporative power.

【官方指南】GRE OG阅读题大全之北大西洋的沉积物图2

21. Which of the following statements is supported by the passage? A. The pull theory is not universally accepted by scientists.

B. The pull theory depends on one of water’s physical properties.

C. The pull theory originated earlier than did the push theory.

22. The passage provides information on each of the following EXCEPT

A. when the pull theory originated

B. the amount of water a tall tree can transport

C. the significance of water’s tensile strength in the pull theory

D. the role of the sun in the pull theory

E. the mechanism underlying water’s tensilestrength

While the influence of British magazines in shaping public opinion predates the nineteenth century, it was during the 1800s that mass distribution became possible and an explosion in periodical readership occurred, vastly increasing magazines’ opinion-shaping powers. The role of magazines as arbiters of nineteenth-century taste is seen in their depictions of the London theater. The magazines accorded some legitimacy to East End working-class theaters that mirrored the format of the fashionable West End theaters serving middle- and upper-class audiences. However, the magazines also depicted music halls—which competed for patronage with all theaters—as places where crass entertainment corrupted spectators’ taste and morals. Finally, they suggested that popular demand for substandard fare created a market unfriendly to higher expressions of dramatic art.

23. The author of the passage attributes the influence of British periodicals in

shaping public opinion in the nineteenth century in part to

A. a growing public interest in reading opinion pieces

B. an increase in the relative number of readers from the middle and upper classes

C. changes in the way in which magazines were distributed

D. magazines’ increased coverage of theater and popular entertainment

E. changes in magazine format that attracted a wider readership

24. The author of the passage mentions East End working-class theaters primarily in order to

A. illustrate a point about the ability of magazines to sway public opinion

B. contrast the kinds of entertainment presented in East End andWest End theaters

C. make a point about how spectators’ tastes influenced the offerings at different kinds of theaters

D. explain how magazines chose which kinds of entertainment to cover

E. identify factors that helped make certain theaters fashionable

25. In the context in which it appears, “accorded” ( line 9) ?most nearly means

A. reconciled

B. revealed

granted

D. verified

E. maintained

PRACTICE BOOK2

Historian F. W. Maitland observed that legal documents are the best—indeed, often the only—available evidence about the economic and social history of a given period. Why, then, has it taken so long for historians to focus systematically on the civil (noncriminal) law of early modern (sixteenth- to eighteenth-century) England? Maitland offered one reason: the subject requires researchers to “master an extremely formal system of pleading and procedure.” Yet the complexities that confront those who would study such materials are not wholly different from those recently surmounted by historians of criminal law in England during the same period. Another possible explanation for historians’ neglect of the subject is their widespread assumption that most people in early modern England had little contact with civil law. If that were so, the history of legal matters would be of little relevance to general historical scholarship. But recent research suggests that civil litigation during the period involved artisans, merchants, professionals, shopkeepers, and farmers, and not merely a narrow, propertied, male elite. Moreover, the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries saw an extraordinary explosion in civil litigation by both women and men, making this the most litigious era in English history on a per capita basis.


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9. The passage suggests that the history of criminal law in early modern England differs from the history of civil law during that same period in that the history of criminal law

A. is of more intellectual interest to historians and their readers

B. has been studied more thoroughly by historians

C. is more relevant to general social history

D. involves the study of a larger proportion of the population

E. does not require the mastery of an extremely formal system of procedures

10. The author of the passage mentions the occupations of those involved in civil litigation in early modern England most likely in order to

A. suggest that most historians’ assumptions about the participants in the civil legal system during that period are probably correct

B. support the theory that more people participated in the civil legal system than the criminal legal system in England during that period

C. counter the claim that legal issues reveal more about a country’s ordinary citizens than about its elite

D. illustrate the wide range of people who used the civil legal system in England during that period

E. suggest that recent data on people who participated in early modern England’s legal system may not be correct

11. The author of the passage suggests which of the following about the “widespread assumption” (line 15) ?

A. Because it is true, the history of civil law is of as much interest to historians focusing on general social history as to those specializing in legal history.

B. Because it is inaccurate, the history of civil law in early modern England should enrich the general historical scholarship of that period.

C. It is based on inaccurate data about the propertied male elite of early modern England.

D. It does not provide a plausible explanation for historians’ failure to study the civil law of early modern England.

E. It is based on an analogy with criminal law in early modern England.

Geese can often be seen grazing in coastal salt marshes. Unfortunately, their intense grazing removes the grassy covering, exposing marsh sediment; this increases evaporation, which in turn increases salt concentration in marsh sediments. Because of this increased concentration, regrowth of plants is minimal, leading to increased erosion, which leads to a decrease in the fertile topsoil, leading to even less regrowth. In time, the salt marsh becomes a mudflat. This process challenges one of the most widely held beliefs about the dynamics of saltmarsh ecosystems: supposedly, consumers such as geese do not play a large role in controlling the productivity of marsh systems. Rather, the standard view claims, marshes are controlled by bottom-up factors, such as nutrients and physical factors.

12. The author discusses “the standard view” (line 14 ) most likely in order to identify a view that

A. explains the occurrence of the chain of events described in the passage

B. provides a summary of the chain of events described in the passage

C. is called into question by the chain of events described in the passage

D. advocates reassessment of the widely held belief described in the passage E. is undermined by the widely held belief described in the passage

13. According to the passage, which of the following is a widely held belief about geese?

A. They are not often seen grazing in coastal salt marshes.

B. They are not the primary consumers in salt-marsh ecosystems.

They play only a minor role in the productivity of salt-marsh ecosystems.

D. They are the primary determinants of which resources will thrive in coastal salt marshes.

E. They control the productivity of salt-marsh ecosystems through a bottom-up process.

Last year, Mayor Stephens established a special law-enforcement task force with the avowed mission of eradicating corruption in city government. The mayor’s handpicked task force has now begun prosecuting a dozen city officials. Since all of these officials were appointed by Mayor Bixby, Mayor Stephens’ predecessor and longtime political foe, it is clear that those being prosecuted have been targeted because of their political affiliations.

14. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the editorial’s argument?

A. Complaints of official corruption in city government have decreased since the anticorruption task force began operating.

B. Former mayor Bixby did not publicly oppose Mayor Stephens’ establishment of the anticorruption task force.

C. Almost all of the officials who have served in city government for any length of time are appointees of Mayor Bixby.

D. All of the members of the anticorruption task force had other jobs in city government before the task force was formed.

E. During the last mayoral election campaign, then–Mayor Bixby hotly disputed the current mayor’s claim that there was widespread corruption in city government.

The decrease in responsiveness that follows continuous stimulation (adaptation) ?is common to all sensory systems, including olfaction. With continued exposure to chronically present ambient odors, individuals’ perception of odor intensity is greatly reduced. Moreover, these perceptual changes can be profound and durable. It is commonly reported that following extended absences from the odorous environment, reexposure may still fail to elicit perception at the original intensity. Most research on olfactory adaptation examines relatively transient changes in stimulus detection or perceived intensity—rarely exceeding several hours and often less—but because olfactory adaptation can be produced with relatively short exposures, these durations are sufficient for investigating many parameters of the phenomenon. However, exposures to odors in natural environments often occur over far longer periods, and the resulting adaptations may differ qualitatively from short-term olfactory adaptation. For example, studies show that even brief periods of odorant stimulation produce transient reductions in receptors in the olfactory epithelium, a process termed “receptor fatigue.” Prolonged odor stimulation, however, could produce more long-lasting reductions in response, possibly involving structures higher in the central nervous system pathway.

20. According to the passage, the phenomenon of olfactory adaptation may cause individuals who are reexposed to an odorous environment after an extended absence to

A. experience a heightened perception of the odor

B. perceive the odor as being less intense than it was upon first exposure

C. return to their original level of perception of the odor

D. exhibit a decreased tolerance for the odorous environment

E. experience the phenomenon of adaptation in other sensory systems

21. The passage asserts which of the following about the exposures involved in the “research on olfactory adaptation”(line 11 ) ?

A. The exposures are of long enough duration for researchers to investigate many aspects of olfactory adaptation.

B. The exposures have rarely consisted of reexposures following extended absences from the odorous environment.

C. The exposures are intended to reproduce the relatively transient olfactory changes typical of exposures to odors in natural environments.

D. Those exposures of relatively short duration are often insufficient to produce the phenomenon of receptor fatigue in study subjects.

E. Those exposures lasting several hours produce reductions in receptors in the olfactory epithelium that are similar to the reductions caused by prolonged odor stimulation.

22. The author of the passage discusses “receptor fatigue”(line 24 ) primarily in order to

A. explain the physiological process through which long-lasting reductions in response are thought to be produced

B. provide an example of a process that subjects would probably not experience during a prolonged period of odorant stimulation

C. help illustrate how the information gathered from most olfactory research may not be sufficient to describe the effects of extended exposures to odors

D. show how studies of short-term olfactory adaptation have only accounted for the reductions in response that follow relatively brief absences from an odorous environment

E. qualify a statement about the severity and duration of the perceptual changes caused by exposure to chronically present ambient odors


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Among academics involved in the study of Northern Renaissance prints (reproducible graphic artworks), an orthodox position can be said to have emerged. This position regards Renaissance prints as passive representations of their time—documents that reliably record contemporary events, opinions, and beliefs—and therefore as an important means of accessing the popular contemporary consciousness. In contrast, pioneering studies such as those by Scribner and Moxey take a strikingly different approach, according to which Northern Renaissance prints were purposeful, active, and important shaping forces in the communities that produced them. Scribner, for example, contends that religious and political prints of the German Reformation (ca.1517–1555) functioned as popular propaganda: tools in a vigorous campaign aimed at altering people’s behavior, attitudes, and beliefs.

23. The passage suggests that an adherent to the “orthodox position”(line 3) would agree with which of the following statements?

A. Northern Renaissance prints should be regarded as passive representations of their time.

B. Northern Renaissance prints were part of a campaign aimed at altering contemporary thinking.

C. Northern Renaissance prints provide reliable records of contemporary events, opinions, and beliefs.

24. Replacement of the word “passive”(line 5) which of the following words results in the least change in meaning for the passage?

A. disinterested

B. submissive

C. flaccid

D. supine

E. unreceptive

Recently an unusually high number of dolphins have been found dead of infectious diseases, and most of these had abnormally high tissue concentrations of certain compounds that, even in low concentrations, reduce dolphins’ resistance to infection. The only source of these compounds in the dolphins’ environment is boat paint. Therefore, since dolphins rid their bodies of the compounds rapidly once exposure ceases, their mortality rate should decline rapidly if such boat paints are banned.

25. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The levels of the compounds typically used in boat paints today are lower than they were in boat paints manufactured a decade ago.

B. In high concentrations, the compounds are toxic to many types of marine animals.

C. The compounds break down into harmless substances after a few months of exposure to water or air.

D. High tissue levels of the compounds have recently been found in some marine animals, but there is no record of any of those animals dying in unusually large numbers recently.

E. The compounds do not leach out of the boat paint if the paint is applied exactly in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions.

The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640–1689) changed markedly during the 1680s, as she turned from writing plays to writing prose narratives. According to literary critic Rachel Carnell, most scholars view this change as primarily motivated by financial considerations: earning a living by writing for the theatre became more difficult in the 1680s, so Behn tried various other types of prose genres in the hope of finding another lucrative medium. In fact, a long epistolary scandal novel that she wrote in the mid-1680s sold quite well. Yet, as Carnell notes, Behn did not repeat this approach in her other prose works; instead, she turned to writing shorter, more serious novels, even though only about half of these were published during her lifetime. Carnell argues that Behn, whose stage productions are primarily comedies, may have turned to an emerging literary form, the novel, in a conscious attempt to criticize, and subvert for her own ends, the conventions and ideology of a well-established form of her day, the dramatic tragedy.

Carnell acknowledges that Behn admired the skill of such contemporary writers of dramatic tragedy as John Dryden, and that Behn’s own comic stage productions displayed the same partisanship for the reigning Stuart monarchy that characterized most of the politically oriented dramatic tragedies of her day. However, Carnell argues that Behn took issue with the way in which these writers and plays defined the nature of tragedy. As prescribed by Dryden, tragedy was supposed to concern a heroic man who is a public figure and who undergoes a fall that evokes pity from the audience. Carnell points out that Behn’s tragic novels focus instead on the plight of little-known women and the private world of the household; even in her few novels featuring male protagonists, Behn insists on the importance of the crimes these otherwise heroic figures commit in the domestic sphere. Moreover, according to Carnell, Behn questioned the view promulgated by monarchist dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s: that the envisioned “public” political ideal—passive obedience to the nation’s king—ought to be mirrored in the private sphere, with family members wholly obedient to a male head of household. Carnell sees Behn’s novels not only as rejecting the model of patriarchal and hierarchical family order, but also as warning that insisting on such a parallel can result in real tragedy befalling the members of the domestic sphere. According to Carnell, Behn’s choice of literary form underscores the differences between her own approach to crafting a tragic story and that taken in the dramatic tragedies, with their artificial distinction between the public and private spheres. Behn’s novels engage in the political dialogue of her era by demonstrating that the good of the nation ultimately encompasses more than the good of the public figures who rule it.

9. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. tracing how Behn’s view of the nature of tragedy changed over time

B. explaining one author’s view of Behn’s contribution to the development of an emerging literary form

C. differentiating between the early and the late literary works of Behn

D. contrasting the approaches to tragedy taken by Behn and by Dryden

E. presenting one scholar’s explanation for a major development in Behn’s literary career

10. The passage suggests that Carnell sees Behn’s novels featuring male protagonists as differing from dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s featuring male protagonists in that the former

A. depict these characters as less than heroic in their public actions

B. emphasize the consequences of these characters’ actions in the private sphere

C. insist on a parallel between the public and the private spheres

D. are aimed at a predominantly female audience

E. depict family members who disobey these protagonists

11. The passage suggests that Carnell believes Behn held which of the following attitudes about the relationship between the private and public spheres?

A. The private sphere is more appropriate than is the public sphere as the setting for plays about political events.

B. The structure of the private sphere should not replicate the hierarchical order of the public sphere.

C. Actions in the private sphere are more fundamental to ensuring the good of the nation than are actions in the public sphere.

D. Crimes committed in the private sphere are likely to cause tragedy in the public sphere rather than vice versa.

E. The private sphere is the mirror in which issues affecting the public sphere can most clearly be seen.

12. It can be inferred from the passage that the “artificial distinction”(line 53-54) refers to the

A. practice utilized in dramatic tragedies of providing different structural models for the public and the private spheres

B. ideology of many dramatic tragedies that advocate passive obedience only in the private sphere and not in the public sphere

C. convention that drama ought to concern events in the public sphere and that novels ought to concern events in the private sphere

D. assumption made by the authors of conventional dramatic tragedies that legitimate tragic action occurs only in the public sphere

E. approach taken by the dramatic tragedies in depicting male and female characters differently, depending on whether their roles were public or private

Computers cannot accurately predict climate change unless the mathematical equations fed into them adequately capture the natural meteorological processes they are intended to simulate. Moreover, there are processes that influence climate, such as modifications in land use, that scientists do not know how to simulate. The failure to incorporate such a process into a computer climate model can lead the model astray because a small initial effect can initiate a feedback cycle: a perturbation in one variable modifies a second variable, which in turn amplifies the original disturbance. An increase in temperature, for example, can boost the moisture content of the atmosphere, which then causes further warming because water vapor is a greenhouse gas.


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13. The passage mentions which of the following as adversely affecting the accuracy of computer predictions of climate change?

A. Failure to allow for some of the processes that influence climate

B. Mathematical equations that do not accurately reflect natural phenomena C. An overestimate of the role of feedback cycles

14. In the context in which it appears, “amplifies” (line 11) most nearly means

A. exacerbates

B. explicates

C. expatiates

D. adds detail to

E. makes louder

Extensive housing construction is underway in Pataska Forest, the habitat of a large population of deer. Because deer feed at the edges of forests, these deer will be attracted to the spaces alongside the new roads being cut through Pataska Forest to serve the new residential areas. Consequently, once the housing is occupied, the annual number of the forest’s deer hit by cars will be much higher than before construction started.

15. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The number of deer hit by commercial vehicles will not increase significantly when the housing is occupied.

B. Deer will be as attracted to the forest edge around new houses as to the forest edge alongside roads.

C. In years past, the annual number of deer that have been hit by cars on existing roads through Pataska Forest has been very low.

D. The development will leave sufficient forest to sustain a significant population of deer.

E. No deer hunting will be allowed in Pataska Forest when the housing is occupied.

While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica, where it originated, its adoption in Europe was initially slow. There is a common belief that Europeans needed to “transform” chocolate to make it appetizing. However, while Spaniards did put sugar, which was unknown to indigenous Americans, into chocolate beverages, this additive was not completely innovative. Mesoamericans were already sweetening chocolate with honey, and the step from honey to sugar— increasingly more available than honey because of expanding sugar plantations in the Americas—is a small one. Likewise, although Spaniards adjusted Mesoamerican recipes by using European spices, the spices chosen suggest an attempt to replicate harder-to-find native flowers. There is no indication the Spaniards deliberately tried to change the original flavor of chocolate.

20. The author of the passage refers to the use of honey primarily to

A. identify the origins of an additive previously untried by Europeans

B. present an example of a product that was unknown to Europeans

C. correct the misapprehension that Mesoamericans used a sweetener that was not available in Europe

D. provide an example of an ingredient that was in the process of being displaced by a substitute

E. explain why the Spanish use of sugar in chocolate was not a sign of a need to transform chocolate

21. Which sentence presents a misconception that the passage challenges?

A. The second ( “There is . . . . appetizing”)

B. The third ( “However . . . . innovative”)

C. The fourth ( “Mesoamericans . . . . one”)

D. The fifth ( “Likewise . . . . flowers”)

E. The sixth ( “There is . . . . chocolate”)

Biologists generally agree that birds and dinosaurs are somehow related to one another. The agreement ends there. Hypotheses regarding dinosaurian and avian evolution are unusually diverse—and often at odds with one another. Confusion consequently reigns over a broad spectrum of unanswered questions dealing with avian origins and the biology of dinosaurs and early birds. This confusion has been exacerbated by a paucity of serious attempts to synthesize and evaluate available data on the details of avian and dinosaurian evolution. Too often, the job of summarizing current knowledge of these subjects has fallen to well-meaning but na?ve lay authors or reporters. Consequently, both the public and the scientific community have often been misled by widespread dissemination of sensational but weakly founded hypotheses.

22. The passage suggests that which of the following could help remedy the problem described in the final sentence(lines 14-17 )

A. An article written by a biologist for the general public summarizing current theories about avian and dinosaurian evolution

B. Aclose examination of available data on avian and dinosaurian evolution C. A new hypothesis regarding the connection between avian and dinosaurian evolution

23. In the context in which it appears, “sensational”(line 16) most nearly means

A. dramatic

B. false

C. excellent

D. eminent

E. horrifying

A portrait type that appeared with relentless frequency in eighteenth-century England is the familiar image of a gentleman poised with one hand inside his partially unbuttoned waistcoat. Standard interpretations of this portrait posture offer observations of correspondence—demonstrating either that it mirrors actual social behavior or that it borrows from classical statuary. Such explanations, however, illuminate neither the source of this curious convention nor the reason for its popularity. It is true that in real life the “hand-in” was a common stance for elite men. Still, there were other ways of comporting the body that did not become winning portrait formulas. And even if the “hand-in” portrait does resemble certain classical statues, what accounts for the adoption of this particular pose?

24. In the context of the passage as a whole, the primary function of the sentence in lines 10-12(“It is …men”) is to

A. emphasize the influence of a particular social class on the conventions of eighteenth-century English portraiture

B. account for the origin of a particular type of behavior frequently represented in eighteenth-century English portraiture

C. acknowledge a historical basis for two competing hypotheses about a particular portrait type

D. question the relevance of certain evidence frequently cited in support of an explanation for a particular portrait type

E. concede that one explanation for the prevalence of a particular portrait type has a basis in fact

25. Which of the following might provide an explanation for the popularity of hand-in portraits that would satisfy the author of the passage?

A. An eighteenth-century English etiquette manual discussing the social implications of the “hand-in” stance

B. A comprehensive catalogue of eighteenth-century English portraits that showed what proportion of portraits depicted gentlemen in the “hand-in” stance

C. A passage from an eighteenth-century English novel in which a gentleman considers what stance to adopt when his portrait is painted

【SAT阅读】阅读选择题常见问题类型

SAT阅读选择题的答案选项一共有5个,对于已经习惯了答案选项是3个和4个的内地考生来说,还是需要一些适应的时间的,通常涉及的问题类型包括:

【SAT阅读】阅读选择题常见问题类型图1

本篇文章的主要观点及中心主题;在本篇文章中,作者对所论述问题的态度及基本观点;

判断所阅读文章的体裁形式,例如:议论、寓言、科技、历史、讽刺、悲剧、喜剧、浪漫、科幻、恐怖、写实及诗歌;

作者在文章中所用的修辞手法的目的,在这篇文章中作者希望达到些什么;

作者通过特例、类比及比较想要说明些什么等等;

什么是文章中的基本事实;

阅读材料的含义或暗指是什么;

难词、偏词、怪词及多义词在这篇文章中的准确意思是什么等等。

对于上面所总结的SAT阅读选择题类型,大家如何在最短的时间内,正确选择答案呢?

首先快速浏览所有的所问问题,之后再有重点、有目的地通读全文;

对总结性、结论性、观点性及重要性的句子要特别注意,做出标识,在这类句子当中常常存在考题的答案;

在文章的第一段中,寻找文章的主要观点,同时对比文章的最后一段或接近文章结束的句子中所表述的中心思想,得出本文作者的基本观点;

考生在快速通读文章后,若无法一次性确定文章的中心主题,则需依据所问问题分段落、有重点地深入阅读。